Mens Heavy Duty Military Black Belt Army Tough Buckle Strong Equipment Tactical

Venduto EUR 7,29 11 Offerte, EUR 5,60 Spedizione, 30-Day Restituzione, Garanzia cliente eBay

Venditore: Top-Rated Seller anddownthewaterfall (19.310) 99.6%, Luogo in cui si trova l'oggetto: Take a Look at My Other Items, Spedizione verso: Worldwide, Numero oggetto: 362647824714 Military Tactical Belt This is a Black Military Tactical Heavy Outdoor Army Duty Belt with Strong Buckle Made of Strong Nylon with a Strong Touch Very Secure Buckle The Length of the Belt is 1250mm / 49 " and it is 1.5" 38mm wide The Buckle is 51mm / 2 wide and 0.3" / "Buckle Size: 2" in width and 8mm Thick HEAVY DUTY BUCKLE: This belt features a military belt buckle made from heavy-duty metal. QUICK RELEASE: It will show the intuitive and smooth quick release functionality when you push the golden tabs down at the same time. If just one tab is engaged, the connection will still hold and fully re-lock on its own. HIGH QUALITY BELT: Made from 1000 D environmental friendly nylon material, soft and comfortable for daily use. Brand New in Excellent Condition Starting at a Penny...With No Reserve..If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! I have other Military items on Ebay so Please.... ....Check out my other items! Bid with Confidence please read my 100% Positive feedback from over 15,000 satisfied customerRead how quickly they receive their items - I post all my items within 24 hours of receiving paymentI am a UK Based Seller with over 5 years of eBay Selling ExperienceI am Highly Rated Seller by Ebay and My selling Performance is Rated Premium Service International customers are welcome. I have shipped items to over 120 countries and I will ship anywhere worldwide UK Buyers can expect their items in a few days sometimes they arrive the next day Items sent to Europe usually take about a week and outside Europe take around 2 weeksInternational orders may require longer handling time if held up at customs. A small percentage do get held up at customs if they do they can take up to 6 weeks to arrive Returns Accepted Why not treat yourself? I always combine multiple items and send an invoice with discounted postage I leave instant feedback upon receiving yours All payment methods accepted from all countries in all currencies Are you looking for a Interesting conversation piece? A birthday present for the person who has everything?A comical gift to cheer someone up? or a special unique gift just to say thank you? You now know where to look for a bargain! Be sure to add me to your favourites list!Please click here If you want to take a look at my other ebay auctions other items!Most of my auctions start at a penny with No ReserveGood Luck with the Bidding!I have sold items to coutries such as Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands 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Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, Fukuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and AccraA belt is a flexible band or strap, typically made of leather or heavy cloth, and worn around the waist. A belt supports trousers or other articles of clothing. Belts have been documented as male clothing since the Bronze Age. Both genders have used them off and on, depending on the current fashion. In the western world, belts have been more common for men, with the exception of the early Middle Ages, late 17th century Mantua, and skirt/blouse combinations between 1900 and 1910. Art Nouveau belt buckles are now collectors' items. In the latter half of the 19th century and until the First World War, the belt was a decorative as well as utilitarian part of military uniform, particularly among officers. In the armed forces of Prussia, Tsarist Russia, and other Eastern European nations, it was common for officers to wear extremely tight pressing into their stomachs and gutting them up, wide belts around the waist, on the outside of the uniform, both to support a saber and for aesthetic reasons. These tightly cinched belts served to draw in the waist and give the wearer a trim physique, emphasizing wide shoulders and a pouting chest. Often the belt served only to emphasize the waist made small by a corset worn under the uniform, a practice which was common especially during the Crimean Wars and was often noted[clarification needed] by soldiers from the Western Front. Political cartoonists of the day[when?] often portrayed the tight waist-cinching of soldiers to comedic effect, and some cartoons survive showing officers being corseted by their inferiors, a practice which surely was uncomfortable but was deemed to be necessary and imposing. In modern times, men started wearing belts in the 1920s, as trouser waists fell to a lower line. Before the 1920s, belts served mostly a decorative purpose, and were associated with the military. Moreover, prior to that trousers did not even have belt loops. As sportswear, trousers with belt loops were already present in the 19th century.[1] Today it is common for men to wear belts with their trousers. In the US military belts are worn snugly at dress events or at inspection so as convey impressions of fitness and discipline. From 1989 forward the US military standards regarding belt tightness during normal duty and non-duty activities have been somewhat more relaxed to prevent deleterious effects of prolonged excessive abdominal constriction. In some countries, especially the United States, a father's belt could be associated with corporal punishment. As belts are constructed out of materials like leather that are both strong and light, a belt can be easily wielded to produce intense pain by using it as a whip to strike the buttocks of a misbehaving child. Moreover, belts were convenient disciplinary tools, as they were and still are generally immediately available for use. The belt can symbolize fatherly authority and paternal responsibility for one's children's behavior and moral development, but is not recommended for use in modern society as it was in the past. Since the 1980s and more commonly in the mid-1990s,[citation needed] the practice of sagging the pants, in which the waistbands (usually secured by a cinched belt) of trousers or (typically long) shorts are worn at or below the hips, thereby exposing the top part of any underwear not obscured by an upper-body garment, has been seen among young men and boys, especially among those who are consanguine with hip-hop culture and fashion. This practice is sometimes (incorrectly) believed to have originated with prison gangs and the prohibition of belts in prison (due to their use as weapons and as devices for suicide) -- historically, including in the latter part of the 20th century, gang-affiliated young men and boys were expected to wear their belts fastened tightly. A police officer's duty belt (not a leg belt).One specialized type of belt is the utility belt or Police duty belt, which includes pockets for carrying items that the wearer needs for prompt use and loops to hang larger items. Police officers, soldiers, and repair personnel are typical roles which use this kind of belt. Duty belts are generally wider than dress belts, and are stiffer to better provide for the carry of heavy items such as pistols. It is common military practice for such a belt to be a symbol of authority or to indicate that the wearer is on duty. Such belts are worn even if no equipment is carried on them. A notable fictional example is Batman's utility belt.The obi is traditionally part of a Japanese kimono.A common sight in fantasy and role playing characters is the excessive use of belts in all different sizes on the character's person. Usually they are used for securing clothing or armor, but others just have several belts around the arms, legs, neck, waist, hips, and across the breasts for decoration. Sometimes they are used in place of eye patches or to decorate weapons. This was also common in superhero costume design of the early 1990s.[dubious – discuss]A studded belt is typically made of leather or similar materials, and is decorated with metal studs. Studded belts are often a part of punk/emo scene, skater, Goth and metal fashion, but are more common for teenage girls, usually worn with jeans and high heels, or knee-high heeled leather boots usually with jeans tucked in.Instead of wearing a conventional belt, skateboarders often wear shoelaces in belt loops to hold their trousers up. This is done mostly for fashion, but it is also useful because belt buckles often dig into a skater's stomach when skating. Since shoelaces do not require belt buckles, this digging is avoided. Another reason this is done is to avoid the excessive pain belts can cause if a skateboarder should fall.They are also used in judo, karate and other martial arts, where different colors may indicate rank or skill.A breast belt is a belt worn by women that holds their breasts up, making them appear larger or more prominent underneath clothing. It is worn generally above or on the stomach but just beneath the breasts.The leg belt is another fashionable article of clothing which, as the name suggests, one wears upon the leg.The baldric is a variant that is worn over a shoulder and the chest. It was typically used to carry a weapon or another implement.Some waistbands imbricate with the belt ClothingHistorical clothing • Traditional and national clothingTopsBlouse Cache-cœur Cardigan Crop top Dress shirt Guayabera Guernsey Halterneck Henley shirt Hoodie Jersey Polo shirt Shirt Sleeveless shirt Sweater Sweater vest T-shirt Tube top Turtleneck TwinsetTrousersBell-bottoms Bermuda shorts Bondage pants Capri pants Cargo pants Chaps Cycling shorts Dress pants High water pants Hotpants Lowrise pants Jeans Jodhpurs Leggings Overall Palazzo pants Parachute pants Pedal pushers Phat pants Shorts Slim-fit pants Sweatpants Windpants Yoga pantsSkirtsA-line skirt Ballerina skirt Denim skirt Men's skirts Miniskirt Pencil skirt Prairie skirt Rah-rah skirt Sarong Skort Tutu WrapDressesBall gown Bouffant gown Coatdress Cocktail dress Débutante dress Formal wear Frock Evening gown Gown House dress Jumper Little black dress Princess line Sheath dress Shirtdress Slip dress Strapless dress Sundress Wedding dress Wrap dressSuits anduniformsAcademic dress Ball dress Black tie Boilersuit Cleanroom suit Clerical clothing Court dress Gymslip Hazmat suit Jumpsuit Kasaya Lab coat Military uniform Morning dress Onesie Pantsuit Red Sea rig Romper suit School uniform Scrubs Stroller Tuxedo Vestment White tieOuterwearApron Blazer British Warm Cagoule Cape Chesterfield Coat Covert coat Cut-off Duffel coat Flight jacket Gilet Goggle jacket Guards coat Harrington jacket Hoodie Jacket Jerkin Leather jacket Mess jacket Opera coat Overcoat Parka Paletot Pea coat Poncho Raincoat Robe Safari jacket Shawl Shrug Ski suit Sleeved blanket Smoking jacket Sport coat Trench coat Ulster coat Waistcoat WindbreakerUnderwear(lingerie)TopBra Camisole UndershirtBottomDiaper Panties Plastic pants Slip Thong Underpants Boxer briefs Boxer shorts Midway briefs BriefsFullAdult bodysuit Infant bodysuit Long underwear Playsuit TeddyFootwearBoot Court shoe Dress shoe Flip-flops Hosiery Sandal Shoe Spats Slipper Sneakers Sock Stocking TightsHeadwearBaseball cap Beret Cap Fedora Hat Helmet Hood Kerchief Knit cap Toque Turban VeilNeckwearAscot tie Bow tie Cravat Neckerchief Necktie ScarfNightwearBabydoll Blanket sleeper Negligee Nightgown Nightshirt PajamasSwimwearBikini Burkini Boardshorts Dry suit Monokini One-piece Rash guard Square leg suit Swim briefs Swim diaper Trunks WetsuitAccessoriesBelt Coin purse Cufflink Cummerbund Gaiters Glasses Gloves Headband Handbag Jewellery Muff Pocket protector Pocket watch Sash Sunglasses Suspenders Umbrella Wallet WristwatchSee alsoActivewear Clothing fetish Clothing technology Clothing terminology Costume Cross-dressing Dress code Western Fashion Haute couture History of clothing See-through clothing The buckle or clasp is a device used for fastening two loose ends, with one end attached to it and the other held by a catch in a secure but adjustable manner.[1] Often taken for granted, the invention of the buckle has been indispensable in securing two ends before the invention of the zipper. The basic buckle frame comes in a variety of shapes and sizes depending on the intended use and fashion of the era.[2] Buckles are as much in use today as they have been in the past. Used for much more than just securing one’s belt, instead it is one of the most dependable devices in securing a range of items. The word "buckle" enters Middle English via Old French and the Latin buccula or "cheek-strap," as for a helmet. Some of the earliest buckles known are those used by Roman soldiers to strap their body armor together and prominently on the balteus and cingulum. Made out of bronze and expensive, these buckles were purely functional for their strength and durability vital to the individual soldier. The baldric was a later belt worn diagonally over the right shoulder down to the waist at the left carrying the sword, and its buckle therefore was as important as that on a Roman soldier’s armor.[3] Bronze Roman buckles came in various types. Not only used for practical purposes, these buckles were also decorated. A Type I Roman buckle was a “buckle-plate” either decorated or plain and consisted of geometric ornaments. Type IA Roman buckles were similar to Type I buckles but differed by being long and narrow, made of double sheet metal, and attached to small D-shaped buckles (primarily had dolphin-heads as decorations). Type IB “buckle-loops” were even more similar to Type IA buckles, only difference being that instead of dolphin-heads, they were adorned with horse-heads. There were also Type II buckles (Type IIA and Type IIB) used by Romans, but all types of Roman buckles could have served purposes for simple clothing as well, and predominantly, as a military purpose.[4] Aside from the practical use found in Roman buckles, Scythian and Sarmatian buckles incorporated animal motifs that were characteristic to their respective decorative arts.[5] These motifs often represented animals engaged in mortal combat. These motifs were imported by many Germanic peoples and the belt buckles were evident in the graves of the Franks and Burgundies. And throughout the Middle Ages, the buckle was used mostly for ornamentation until the second half of the 14th century where the knightly belt and buckle took on its most splendid form.[6] Buckles remained exclusively for the wealthy until the 15th century where improved manufacturing techniques made it possible to easily produce a cheaper molded item available to the general population. The buckle essentially consists of four main components: the frame, chape, bar, and prong. The oldest Roman buckles are of a simple "D"-shaped frame, in which the prong or tongue extends from one side to the other. In the 14th century, buckles with a double-loop or "8"-shaped frame emerged. The prongs of these buckles attach to the center post. The appearance of multi-part buckles with chapes and removable pins, which were commonly found on shoes, occurred in the 17th century. FrameThe frame is the most visible part of the buckle and holds the other parts of the buckle together. Buckle frames come in various shapes, sizes, and decorations. The shape of the frame could be a plain square or rectangle, but may be oval or made into a circular shape. A reverse curve of the frame indicated that the whole buckle was intended to be used for securing a thick material, such as leather. This reverse curve shape made it easier to thread the intended thick material end over the bar. But the shape of the frame is not limited to simply squares and ovals, the decoration of the frame itself defines the shape it will turn out to be. Since the frame is the largest part of the buckle, any and all decorations are placed on it. Decorations range from wedged shapes, picture references to people and animals, and insignia of a desired organization.[2] The part of the frame that strap goes through prior to putting the tongue/prong through the hole is often referred to as the 'end bar'. The 'center bar' holds the tongue and the part (if present) that holds the tip of the strap in place is called the 'keeper' or 'keeper bar' these terms are used when additional information is needed to describe a buckle for measurements or design. Note that if a separate piece of leather or metal is attached to the strap for holding the tip of the belt/strap in place that is sometimes also called a 'keeper'. Chape A buckle chape; this is the plate on the right. It connects the buckle to the (missing) strap.Chapes or "caps" of various designs could be fitted to the bar to enable one strap end to be secured before fastening the other, adjustable end. This made buckles easily removable and interchangeable, leading to a significant advantage since buckles were expensive.[2] Unfortunately, the teeth or spikes on the semi-circular chapes damaged the straps or belts, making frequent repairs of the material necessary. Buckles fitted with "T"-, anchor-, or spade-shaped chapes avoided this problem but needed a slotted end in the belt to accommodate them.[8] The belt buckle chapse are frequently made in a form of a plate, thus the name buckle plate. ProngThe prong (also named pin) is typically made out of steel or other types of metal. In conventional belts, the prong fits through the buckle to secure the material at a pre-set length.[9] The prong is usually referred to as the tongue of the buckle in America, as in 'lock-tongued buckle'. Prong is only used when the tongue is permanently fixed in position.[10] BarThe bar served to hold the chape and prong to the frame. When prongs and chapes are removed from the buckle design, the buckle incorporated a movable bar relying on the tension of the adjusted belt to keep it in place.[11] MaterialsMetal Ornate brass belt buckles, SlovakiaThe first known buckles to be used were made out of bronze for their strength and durability for military usage.[12][13] For the last few hundred years, buckles have been made from brass (an alloy of copper and zinc). In the 18th century, brass buckles incorporated iron bars, chapes, and prongs due to the parts being made by different manufactures. Silver was also used in buckle manufacturing for its malleability and for being strong and durable with an attractive shine. White metal, any bright metallic compound, was also used in all styles of buckles; however, if iron was present, rust will form if it is allowed to be exposed and remain in damp conditions.[14] PearlPearl buckles have been made from pearly shells and usually for ladies’ dresses. Since a reasonable size flat surface was needed to make a buckle, oyster was commonly used to make these types of buckles. The quality and color of course vary, ranging from layers of yellow and white to brown or grey.[15] WoodWhen preferred materials were scarce during the Great Depression of the 1930s and the two World Wars, buckles became a low priority and manufactures needed to find ways to continue to produce them cheaply. Makers turned to wood as a cheap alternative since it was easily worked by hand or simple machinery by impressing the designs onto the wood. But there were problems using wood. Any attempt to brighten the wood’s dull appearance with painted designs or plasterwork embellishments immediately came off if the buckle were to be washed.[16] LeatherBuckles were not entirely made out of leather because a frame and bar of leather would not be substantial enough to carry a prong or the full weight of the belt and anything the belt and buckle intend to support. However, leather (or dyed suede, more common to match a lady’s garment color) was used more as a “cover-up” for cheap materials to create a product worthy of buying.[17] GlassBuckles were not made out of glass; rather the glass was used as a decorative feature that covered the entire frame of a metal buckle. One method of creating glass buckles was gluing individual discs of glass to the metal frame. Another more intricate method was to set a wire into the back of a glass disc, and then threading the wire through a hole in the fretted frame of the buckle. The glass was further secured by either bending it over the back of the frame or splayed out like a rivet.[18] Polymers Snap-fit buckle on a beltCelluloid, a type of thermoplastic invented in 1869, was used sparingly and only for decoration until after World War I where it began to be produced on a wider commercial scale. After World War II, the chemical industry saw a great expansion where Celluloid and other plastics such as Casein and Bakelite formed the basis of the buckle-making industry.[19] Many thermoplastic polymers such as nylon are now used in snap-fit buckles for a wide variety of applications. Types of bucklesClasp vs. buckleAlthough any device that serves to secure two loose ends is casually called a buckle, if it consists of two separate pieces with one for a hook and the other for a loop, it should be called a clasp. Clasps became increasingly popular at the turn of the 19th century with one clear disadvantage: since each belt end was fixed to each clasp piece, the size of the belt was typically not adjustable unless an elastic panel was inserted.[20] Buckle trim or slideA buckle without a chape or prongs is called a buckle trim or slide. It may have been designed this particular way or it may have lost its prongs through continuous use. This type was frequently used in home dress-making (belt end being secured with the simple hook-and-eye) and was purely used for decoration for items such as shoe fronts to conceal unattractive elastic fitting.[8] Conventional (belt) buckleThe belt buckle is the conventional buckle with a frame, bar and prong gives the most reliable and easy-to-use closure for a belt. It is not meant, by design, to offer much space for decoration, but for its time-tested reliability.[8] Side release buckleA conventional buckle that is formed by a male buckle member (the hook end) and a female buckle member (the catch end). The male buckle member consists of a center guide rod forwardly extending from the front side with two spring arms equally spaced from the center rod. The two spring arms each have a retaining block that terminates at the front end. The female buckle member has a front open side and two side holes which hold and secure the two spring arms of the male buckle member.[21] This sort of buckle may be found on backpacks, belts, rifle slings, and boots. It is also known as the "parachute buckle". Blimp buckleThe bottom part of the blimp, also known as a gondola, is called the buckle. Spur buckleSpur buckle is a term used to designate: A buckle used to attach the spur to the bootA belt buckle shaped in form of a spur [hide] v t eSewingTechniquesBasting Cut Darning Ease Embellishment Fabric tube turning Floating canvas Gather Godet Gusset Heirloom sewing ShirringStitchesList of sewing stitches Backstitch Bar tack Blanket Blind stitch Buttonhole Catch stitch Chain stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery stitch Hemstitch Lockstitch Overlock Pad stitch Pick stitch Rantering Running Sashiko Stoating Tack Topstitch ZigzagSeamsNeckline Felled seam Seam allowance Style lineNotions TrimsBias tape Collar stays Elastic Grommet / Eyelet Interfacing Passementerie Piping Ruffle Rickrack Self-fabric Soutache Trim Twill tape WrightsClosuresBuckle Button Buttonhole Frog Hook-and-eye Hook and loop fastener Shank Snap ZipperMaterialsBias Yarn / Thread Selvage Textiles / FabricsToolsBobbin Dress form Needlecase Needle threader Pattern notcher Pin Pincushion Pinking shears Scissors Seam ripper Sewing needle Stitching awl Tailor's ham Tape measure Thimble Tracing paper Tracing wheelTrades SuppliersCloth merchant Draper Dressmaker Haberdasher Mercer Sewing occupations TailorSewing machinemanufacturersList of sewing machine brands and companies Barthélemy Thimonnier Bernina International Brother Industries Elias Howe Elna Feiyue Frister & Rossmann Janome Jones Sewing Machine Company Juki Merrow New Home Pfaff Sewmor Singer Tapemaster Viking / Husqvarna WhitePattern manufacturersButterick Burda Clothkits McCall's SimplicityGlossary of sewing terms[hide] v t eClothing materials and partsGarment StructuresArmscye Collar Cuff Dart Facing Fly Lapel Gore Hem Lining Placket Pleat Pocket Revers Ruffle Shoulder pad Strap Sleeve Train Waistband YokeTextilesArtificial leather Cotton Elastic Fur Linen Nylon Polyester Rayon Silk Spandex WoolAnimals hide / LeatherCalf Deer Goat Kangaroo Ostrich Seal Sheep Snake StingrayFastenersBack closure Belt hook Buckle Button Buttonhole Frog Shank Hook-and-eye Hook and loop Velcro Snap ZipperSeamsNeckline Bustline Waistline Hemline An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or ground force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch or armed service of a nation or state. It may also include aviation assets by possessing an army aviation component. In certain nations, the term army refers to the entire armed forces of a nation (e.g., People's Liberation Army). Within a national military force, the word army may also mean a field army. They differ from army reserves who are activated only during such times as war or natural disasters. In several countries, the army is officially called the Land Army to differentiate it from an air force called the Air Army, notably France. In such countries, the word "army" on its own retains its connotation of a land force in common usage. The current largest army in the world, by number of active troops, is the People's Liberation Army Ground Force of China with 1,600,000 active troops and 510,000 reserve personnel followed by the Indian Army with 1,129,000 active troops and 960,000 reserve personnel. By convention, irregular military is understood in contrast to regular armies which grew slowly from personal bodyguards or elite militia. Regular in this case refers to standardized doctrines, uniforms, organizations, etc. Regular military can also refer to full-time status (standing army), versus reserve or part-time personnel. Other distinctions may separate statutory forces (established under laws such as the National Defence Act), from de facto "non-statutory" forces such as some guerrilla and revolutionary armies. Armies may also be expeditionary (designed for overseas or international deployment) or fencible (designed for – or restricted to – homeland defence) IndiaIndia has had the earliest armies in the world. During the Indus Valley Civilization (3500–1900 BCE) however, there was just a small guard force as they didn't fear invasion at the time.[citation needed] The first known recorded battles, the War of the Ten Kings, happened when a Hindu Aryan emperor Sudas defeated an alliance of ten kings and their supportive chieftains. During the Iron Age, the Maurya and Nanda Empires had the largest armies in the world, the peak being approximately over 600,000 Infantry, 30,000 Cavalry, 8,000 War-Chariots and 9,000 War Elephants not including tributary state allies. [1][2][3][4] In the Gupta age, large armies of longbowmen were recruited to fight off invading horse archer armies. Elephants, pikemen and cavalry were other featured troops. In Rajput times, the main piece of equipment was iron or chain-mail armour, a round shield, either a curved blade or a straight-sword, a chakra disc and a katar dagger.[citation needed] China A bronze crossbow trigger mechanism and butt plate that were mass-produced in the Warring States period (475-221 BCE)The states of China raised armies for at least 1000 years before the Spring and Autumn Annals[citation needed]. By the Warring States period, the crossbow had been perfected enough to become a military secret, with bronze bolts which could pierce any armor. Thus any political power of a state rested on the armies and their organization. China underwent political consolidation of the states of Han (韓), Wei (魏), Chu (楚), Yan (燕), Zhao (趙) and Qi (齊), until by 221 BCE, Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇帝), the first emperor of the Qin dynasty, attained absolute power. This first emperor of China could command the creation of a Terracotta Army to guard his tomb in the city of Xi'an (西安), as well as a realignment of the Great Wall of China to strengthen his empire against insurrection, invasion and incursion. Sun Tzu's The Art of War remains one of China's Seven Military Classics, even though it is two thousand years old.[5] Since no political figure could exist without an army, measures were taken to ensure only the most capable leaders could control the armies.[6] Civil bureaucracies (士大夫) arose to control the productive power of the states, and their military power.[7] SpartaThe Spartan Army was one of the earliest known professional armies. Boys were sent to a barracks at the age of seven or eight to train for becoming a soldier. At the age of thirty they were released from the barracks and allowed to marry and have a family. After that, men devoted their lives to war until their retirement at the age of 60. Unlike other civilizations, whose armies had to disband during the planting and harvest seasons, the Spartan serfs or helots, did the manual labor. This allowed the Spartans to field a full-time army with a campaign season that lasted all year.[citation needed] The Spartan Army was largely composed of hoplites, equipped with arms and armor nearly identical to each other. Each hoplite bore the Spartan emblem and a scarlet uniform. The main pieces of this armor were a round shield, a spear and a helmet. Ancient Rome A 2nd-century depiction of Roman soldiers on Trajan's columnThe Roman Army had its origins in the citizen army of the Republic, which was staffed by citizens serving mandatory duty for Rome. Reforms turned the army into a professional organization which was still largely filled by citizens, but these citizens served continuously for 25 years before being discharged.[citation needed] The Romans were also noted for making use of auxiliary troops, non-Romans who served with the legions and filled roles that the traditional Roman military could not fill effectively, such as light skirmish troops and heavy cavalry. After their service in the army they were made citizens of Rome and then their children were citizens also. They were also given land and money to settle in Rome. In the Late Roman Empire, these auxiliary troops, along with foreign mercenaries, became the core of the Roman Army; moreover, by the time of the Late Roman Empire tribes such as the Visigoths were paid to serve as mercenaries. Medieval Europe Armies of the Middle Ages consisted of noble knights, rendering service to their suzerain, and hired footsoldiersIn the earliest Middle Ages it was the obligation of every aristocrat to respond to the call to battle with his own equipment, archers, and infantry. This decentralized system was necessary due to the social order of the time, but could lead to motley forces with variable training, equipment and abilities. The more resources the noble had access to, the better his troops would be. The knights were drawn to battle by feudal and social obligation, and also by the prospect of profit and advancement. Those who performed well were likely to increase their landholdings and advance in the social hierarchy.[citation needed] The prospect of significant income from pillage, and ransoming prisoners was also important. For the mounted knight war could be a relatively low risk affair. As central governments grew in power, a return to the citizen armies of the classical period also began, as central levies of the peasantry began to be the central recruiting tool. England was one of the most centralized states in the Middle Ages, and the armies that fought in the Hundred Years' War were, predominantly, composed of paid professionals. In theory, every Englishman had an obligation to serve for forty days. Forty days was not long enough for a campaign, especially one on the continent.[8] Thus the scutage was introduced, whereby most Englishmen paid to escape their service and this money was used to create a permanent army. However, almost all high medieval armies in Europe were composed of a great deal of paid core troops, and there was a large mercenary market in Europe from at least the early 12th century. As the Middle Ages progressed in Italy, Italian cities began to rely mostly on mercenaries to do their fighting rather than the militias that had dominated the early and high medieval period in this region. These would be groups of career soldiers who would be paid a set rate. Mercenaries tended to be effective soldiers, especially in combination with standing forces, but in Italy they came to dominate the armies of the city states. This made them considerably less reliable than a standing army. Mercenary-on-mercenary warfare in Italy also led to relatively bloodless campaigns which relied as much on maneuver as on battles. In 1439 the French legislature, known as the Estates General (French: états généraux), passed laws that restricted military recruitment and training to the king alone. There was a new tax to be raised known as the taille that was to provide funding for a new Royal army. The mercenary companies were given a choice of either joining the Royal army as compagnies d'ordonnance on a permanent basis, or being hunted down and destroyed if they refused. France gained a total standing army of around 6,000 men, which was sent out to gradually eliminate the remaining mercenaries who insisted on operating on their own. The new standing army had a more disciplined and professional approach to warfare than its predecessors. The reforms of the 1440s, eventually led to the French victory at Castillon in 1453, and the conclusion of the Hundred Years' War. By 1450 the companies were divided into the field army, known as the grande ordonnance and the garrison force known as the petite ordonnance .[9] Early modern Swiss mercenaries and German Landsknechts fighting for glory, fame and money at the Battle of Marignan (1515). The bulk of the Renaissance armies was composed of mercenaries.First nation states lacked the funds needed to maintain standing forces, so they tended to hire mercenaries to serve in their armies during wartime. Such mercenaries typically formed at the ends of periods of conflict, when men-at-arms were no longer needed by their respective governments. The veteran soldiers thus looked for other forms of employment, often becoming mercenaries. Free Companies would often specialize in forms of combat that required longer periods of training that was not available in the form of a mobilized militia. As late as the 1650s, most troops were mercenaries. However, after the 17th century, most states invested in better disciplined and more politically reliable permanent troops. For a time mercenaries became important as trainers and administrators, but soon these tasks were also taken by the state. The massive size of these armies required a large supporting force of administrators. The newly centralized states were forced to set up vast organized bureaucracies to manage these armies, which some historians argue is the basis of the modern bureaucratic state. The combination of increased taxes and increased centralisation of government functions caused a series of revolts across Europe such as the Fronde in France and the English Civil War. In many countries, the resolution of this conflict was the rise of absolute monarchy. Only in England and the Netherlands did representative government evolve as an alternative. From the late 17th century, states learned how to finance wars through long term low interest loans from national banking institutions. The first state to master this process was the Dutch Republic. This transformation in the armies of Europe had great social impact. The defense of the state now rested on the commoners, not on the aristocrats. However, aristocrats continued to monopolise the officer corps of almost all early modern armies, including their high command. Moreover, popular revolts almost always failed unless they had the support and patronage of the noble or gentry classes. The new armies, because of their vast expense, were also dependent on taxation and the commercial classes who also began to demand a greater role in society. The great commercial powers of the Dutch and English matched much larger states in military might. As any man could be quickly trained in the use of a musket, it became far easier to form massive armies. The inaccuracy of the weapons necessitated large groups of massed soldiers. This led to a rapid swelling of the size of armies. For the first time huge masses of the population could enter combat, rather than just the highly skilled professionals. The colonels of the French Guards and British guards politely discussing who should fire first at the Battle of Fontenoy (1745).[10] An example of "lace war".It has been argued that the drawing of men from across the nation into an organized corps helped breed national unity and patriotism, and during this period the modern notion of the nation state was born. However, this would only become apparent after the French Revolutionary Wars. At this time, the levée en masse and conscription would become the defining paradigm of modern warfare. Before then, however, most national armies were in fact composed of many nationalities. In Spain armies were recruited from all the Spanish European territories including Spain, Italy, Wallonia (Walloon Guards) and Germany. The French recruited some soldiers from Germany, Switzerland as well as from Piedmont. Britain recruited Hessian and Hanovrian troops until the late 18th century. Irish Catholics made careers for themselves in the armies of many Catholic European states. Prior to the English Civil War in England, the monarch maintained a personal Bodyguard of Yeomen of the Guard and the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, or "gentlemen pensioners", and a few locally raised companies to garrison important places such as Berwick on Tweed or Portsmouth (or Calais before it was recaptured by France in 1558). Troops for foreign expeditions were raised upon an ad hoc basis. Noblemen and professional regular soldiers were commissioned by the monarch to supply troops, raising their quotas by indenture from a variety of sources. On January 26, 1661 Charles II issued the Royal Warrant that created the genesis of what would become the British Army, although the Scottish and English Armies would remain two separate organizations until the unification of England and Scotland in 1707. The small force was represented by only a few regiments. After the American Revolutionary War the Continental Army was quickly disbanded as part of the Americans' distrust of standing armies, and irregular state militias became the sole ground army of the United States, with the exception of one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. Then First American Regiment was established in 1784. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The first of these, the Legion of the United States, was established in 1791. Until 1733 the common soldiers of Prussian Army consisted largely of peasantry recruited or impressed from Brandenburg-Prussia, leading many to flee to neighboring countries.[11] To halt this trend, Frederick William I divided Prussia into regimental cantons. Every youth was required to serve as a soldier in these recruitment districts for three months each year; this met agrarian needs and added extra troops to bolster the regular ranks.[12] The battle of the Nations (1813), marked the transition between aristocratic armies and national armies.[13] Masses replace hired professionals and national hatred overrides dynastic conflicts. An early example of total wars.Russian tsars before Peter I of Russia maintained professional hereditary musketeer corps (streltsy in Russian) that were highly unreliable and undisciplined. In times of war the armed forces were augmented by peasants. Peter I introduced a modern regular army built on German model, but with a new aspect: officers not necessarily from nobility, as talented commoners were given promotions that eventually included a noble title at the attainment of an officer's rank. Conscription of peasants and townspeople was based on quota system, per settlement. Initially it was based on the number of households, later it was based on the population numbers.[14] The term of service in the 18th century was for life. In 1793 it was reduced to 25 years. In 1834 it was reduced to 20 years plus 5 years in reserve and in 1855 to 12 years plus 3 years of reserve.[14][chronology citation needed] The first Ottoman standing army were Janissaries. They replaced forces that mostly comprised tribal warriors (ghazis) whose loyalty and morale could not always be trusted. The first Janissary units were formed from prisoners of war and slaves, probably as a result of the sultan taking his traditional one-fifth share of his army's booty in kind rather than cash. From the 1380s onwards, their ranks were filled under the devşirme system, where feudal dues were paid by service to the sultan. The "recruits" were mostly Christian youths, reminiscent of mamluks. China organized the Manchu people into the Eight Banner system in the early 17th century. Defected Ming armies formed the Green Standard Army. These troops enlisted voluntarily and for long terms of service. Late modern Indian Army personnel during Operation Crusader in Egypt, 1941Conscription allowed the French Republic to form the La Grande Armée, what Napoleon Bonaparte called "the nation in arms", which successfully battled European professional armies. Conscription, particularly when the conscripts are being sent to foreign wars that do not directly affect the security of the nation, has historically been highly politically contentious in democracies. Canada also had a political dispute over conscription during World War II. Similarly, mass protests against conscription to fight the Vietnam War occurred in several countries in the late 1960s. In developed nations, the increasing emphasis on technological firepower and better-trained fighting forces, the sheer unlikelihood of a conventional military assault on most developed nations, as well as memories of the contentiousness of the Vietnam War experience, make mass conscription unlikely in the foreseeable future. Russia, as well as many other nations, retains mainly a conscript army. There is also a very rare citizen army as used in Switzerland (see Military of Switzerland). Armies as armed servicesWestern armies are usually subdivided as follows: Corps: A corps usually consists of two or more divisions and is commanded by a Lieutenant General.Division: Each division is commanded by a Major General, and usually holds three brigades including infantry, artillery, engineers and communications units in addition to logistics (supply and service) support to sustain independent action. Except for the divisions operating in the mountains, divisions have at least one armored unit, some have even more depending upon their functionality. The basic building block of all ground force combat formations is the infantry division.Brigade: A brigade is under the command of a Brigadier or Brigadier General and sometimes is commanded by a Colonel. It typically comprises three or more battalions of different units depending on its functionality. An independent brigade would be one that primarily consists of an artillery unit, an infantry unit, an armour unit and logistics to support its actions. Such a brigade is not part of any division and is under direct command of a corps.Battalion: Each battalion is commanded by a Colonel or sometimes by Lieutenant Colonel who commands roughly 500 to 750 soldiers. This number varies depending on the functionality of the regiment. A battalion comprises 3–5 companies (3 rifle companies, a fire support company and headquarters company) or its functional equivalent such as batteries (artillery) or squadrons (armour and cavalry), each under the command of a Major. The company can be divided into platoons, each of which can again be divided into sections or squads. (Terminology is nationality and even unit specific.)[15]Field armyA field army is composed of a headquarters, army troops, a variable number of corps, typically between three and four, and a variable number of divisions, also between three and four. A battle is influenced at the Field Army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. Field armies are controlled by a General or Lieutenant General. Formations Standard map symbol for a numbered Army, the 'X's are not substituting the army's numberA particular army can be named or numbered to distinguish it from military land forces in general. For example, the First United States Army and the Army of Northern Virginia. In the British Army it is normal to spell out the ordinal number of an army (e.g. First Army), whereas lower formations use figures (e.g. 1st Division). Armies (as well as army groups and theaters) are large formations which vary significantly between armed forces in size, composition, and scope of responsibility. In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Force, "Armies" could vary in size, but were subordinate to an Army Group-sized "front" in wartime. In peacetime, a Soviet army was usually subordinate to a military district. Viktor Suvorov's Inside the Soviet Army describes how Cold War era Soviet military districts were actually composed of a front headquarters and a military district headquarters co-located for administration and deception ('maskirovika') reasons. See alsoArmed forcesArmy aviationFirst world warList of armiesList of armies by countryList of numbered armiesList of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnelMercenaryMilitary historyMilitary organizationMilitiaMilitaryParamilitarySoldierWar Army Air force NavyAirborne forces Air defense force Coast guard Cyber force Gendarmerie Marine corps Medical corps Space force Special forcesA military is a force authorized to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. It typically consists of an Army, Navy, Air Force, and in certain countries the Marines and Coast Guard. The task of the military is usually defined as defence of the state, and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state. The military may also have additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within a society, including, the promotion of a political agenda, protecting corporate economic interests, internal population control, construction, emergency services, social ceremonies, and guarding important areas. The military may also function as a discrete subculture within a larger civil society, through the development of separate infrastructures, which may include housing, schools, utilities, logistics, health and medical, law, food production, finance and banking. In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are often treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. Armed force is the use of armed forces to achieve political objectives. There are various forms of irregular military forces, not belonging to a recognized state; though they share many attributes with regular military forces, they are less often referred to as simply "military". Countries by number of active soldiers (2009)The profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of the classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders. The Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, and is celebrated in bas-relief on his monuments. A thousand years later, the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might, he was buried with an army of terracotta soldiers.[1] The Romans were dedicated to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns. The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1585.[2] It comes from the Latin militaris (from Latin miles, meaning "soldier") through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass.[3][4] The word is now identified as denoting someone that is skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare.[5][6] As a noun, the military usually refers generally to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more specifically, to the senior officers who command them.[5][6] In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel, equipment, and the physical area which they occupy. As an adjective, military originally referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, and anything to do with their profession.[2] The names of both the Royal Military Academy (1741) and United States Military Academy (1802) reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars, 'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole,[2] and in the 21st century expressions like 'military service', 'military intelligence', and 'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects. As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is often considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries. It differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology, governments, and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more effectively wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, which is used to create cohesive military forces. Still another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is largely based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts (war), their participating armies and navies and, more recently, air forces. There are two types of military history, although almost all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, and effects of a conflict; and analytical history, that seeks to offer statements about the causes, nature, ending, and aftermath of conflicts – as a means of deriving knowledge and understanding of conflicts as a whole, and prevent repetition of mistakes in future, to suggest better concepts or methods in employing forces, or to advocate the need for new technology. OrganisationMain article: Military organization An example of military command; a map of Argentina's military zones (1975–1983)PersonnelMain article: Military personnelSee also: Military reserve and Military service CF-18 Hornet drops a laser-guided bombDespite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war."[7] Rank and roleMain article: Military personnelThe military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks normally grouped (in descending order of authority) as officers (e.g. Colonel), non-commissioned officers (e.g. Sergeant), and personnel at the lowest rank (e.g. Private Soldier). While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel (soldiers, sailors, marines, or airmen) fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are often grouped according to the nature of the role's military task on combat operations: combat roles (e.g. infantry), combat support roles (e.g. combat engineers), and combat service support roles (e.g. logistical support). RecruitmentMain article: Military recruitmentPersonnel may be recruited or conscripted, depending on the system chosen by the state. Most military personnel are males; the minority proportion of female personnel varyies internationally (approximately 3% in India,[8] 10% in the UK,[9] 13% in Sweden,[10] 16% in the US,[11] and 27% in South Africa[12]). While two-thirds of states now recruit or conscript only adults, as of 2017 50 states still relied partly on children under the age of 18 (usually aged 16 or 17) to staff their armed forces.[13] Whereas recruits who join as officers tend to be upwardly-mobile,[14][15] most enlisted personnel have a childhood background of relative socio-economic deprivation.[16][17][18] For example, after the US suspended conscription in 1973, "the military disproportionately attracted African American men, men from lower-status socioeconomic backgrounds, men who had been in nonacademic high school programs, and men whose high school grades tended to be low".[14] ObligationsMain article: Military recruitmentThe obligations of military employment are many. Full-time military employment normally requires a minimum period of service of several years; between two and six years is typical of armed forces in Australia, the UK and the US, for example, depending on role, branch, and rank.[19][20][21] Some armed forces allow a short discharge window, normally during training, when recruits may leave the armed force as of right.[22] Alternatively, part-time military employment, known as reserve service, allows a recruit to maintain a civilian job while training under military discipline at weekends; he or she may be called out to deploy on operations to supplement the full-time personnel complement. After leaving the armed forces, recruits may remain liable for compulsory return to full-time military employment in order to train or deploy on operations.[22][21] Military law introduces offences not recognised by civilian courts, such as absence without leave (AWOL), desertion, political acts, malingering, behaving disrespectfully, and disobedience (see, for example, Offences against military law in the United Kingdom).[23] Penalties range from a summary reprimand to imprisonment for several years following a court martial.[23] Certain fundamental rights are also restricted or suspended, including the freedom of association (e.g. union organizing) and freedom of speech (speaking to the media).[23] Military personnel in some countries have a right of conscientious objection if they believe an order is immoral or unlawful, or cannot in good conscience carry it out. Personnel may be posted to bases in their home country or overseas, according to operational need, and may be deployed from those bases on exercises or operations anywhere in the world. During peacetime, when military personnel are generally stationed in garrisons or other permanent military facilities, they mostly conduct administrative tasks, training and education activities, technology maintenance, and recruitment. TrainingMain article: Recruit trainingInitial training conditions recruits for the demands of military life, including preparedness to injure and kill other people, and to face mortal danger without fleeing. It is a physically and psychologically intensive process which resocializes recruits for the unique nature of military demands. For example: Individuality is suppressed (e.g. by shaving the head of new recruits, issuing uniforms, denying privacy, and prohibiting the use of first names);[24][25]Daily routine is tightly controlled (e.g. recruits must make their beds, polish boots, and stack their clothes in a certain way, and mistakes are punished);[26][25]Continuous stressors deplete psychological resistance to the demands of their instructors (e.g. depriving recruits of sleep, food, or shelter, shouting insults and giving orders intended to humiliate);[27][25][26] andFrequent punishments serve to condition group conformity and discourage poor performance.[25]The disciplined drill instructor is presented as a role model of the ideal soldier.[28]PerksMilitary employment can bring perks including, for example, adventurous training; subsidised accommodation, meals and travel; and a pension. Some armed forces also subsidise recruits' education before, during and/or after military service in return for a minimum period of formal military employment. IntelligenceMain article: Military intelligence This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The next requirement comes as a fairly basic need for the military to identify possible threats it may be called upon to face. For this purpose, some of the commanding forces and other military, as well as often civilian personnel participate in identification of these threats. This is at once an organisation, a system and a process collectively called military intelligence (MI). The difficulty in using military intelligence concepts and military intelligence methods is in the nature of the secrecy of the information they seek, and the clandestine nature that intelligence operatives work in obtaining what may be plans for a conflict escalation, initiation of combat, or an invasion. An important part of the military intelligence role is the military analysis performed to assess military capability of potential future aggressors, and provide combat modelling that helps to understand factors on which comparison of forces can be made. This helps to quantify and qualify such statements as: "China and India maintain the largest armed forces in the World" or that "the U.S. Military is considered to be the world's strongest".[29] Guerrilla structureAlthough some groups engaged in combat, such as militants or resistance movements, refer to themselves using military terminology, notably 'Army' or 'Front', none have had the structure of a national military to justify the reference, and usually have had to rely on support of outside national militaries. They also use these terms to conceal from the MI their true capabilities, and to impress potential ideological recruits. Having military intelligence representatives participate in the execution of the national defence policy is important, because it becomes the first respondent and commentator on the policy expected strategic goal, compared to the realities of identified threats. When the intelligence reporting is compared to the policy, it becomes possible for the national leadership to consider allocating resources over and above the officers and their subordinates military pay, and the expense of maintaining military facilities and military support services for them. EconomicsMain article: Military budget Map of military expenditures as a percentage of GDP by country, 2015.[30] Military spending in 2007, in USD, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Military expenditure of 2014 in USDDefense economics is the financial and monetary efforts made to resource and sustain militaries, and to finance military operations, including war. The process of allocating resources is conducted by determining a military budget, which is administered by a military finance organisation within the military. Military procurement is then authorised to purchase or contract provision of goods and services to the military, whether in peacetime at a permanent base, or in a combat zone from local population. Capability development This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Capability development, which is often referred to as the military 'strength', is arguably one of the most complex activities known to humanity; because it requires determining: strategic, operational, and tactical capability requirements to counter the identified threats; strategic, operational, and tactical doctrines by which the acquired capabilities will be used; identifying concepts, methods, and systems involved in executing the doctrines; creating design specifications for the manufacturers who would produce these in adequate quantity and quality for their use in combat; purchase the concepts, methods, and systems; create a forces structure that would use the concepts, methods, and systems most effectively and efficiently; integrate these concepts, methods, and systems into the force structure by providing military education, training, and practice that preferably resembles combat environment of intended use; create military logistics systems to allow continued and uninterrupted performance of military organisations under combat conditions, including provision of health services to the personnel, and maintenance for the equipment; the services to assist recovery of wounded personnel, and repair of damaged equipment; and finally, post-conflict demobilisation, and disposal of war stocks surplus to peacetime requirements. Development of military doctrine is perhaps the more important of all capability development activities, because it determines how military forces were, and are used in conflicts, the concepts and methods used by the command to employ appropriately military skilled, armed and equipped personnel in achievement of the tangible goals and objectives of the war, campaign, battle, engagement, action or a duel.[31] The line between strategy and tactics is not easily blurred, although deciding which is being discussed had sometimes been a matter of personal judgement by some commentators, and military historians. The use of forces at the level of organisation between strategic and tactical is called operational mobility. ScienceMain article: Military technology This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Because most of the concepts and methods used by the military, and many of its systems are not found in commercial branches, much of the material is researched, designed, developed, and offered for inclusion in arsenals by military science organisations within the overall structure of the military. Military scientists are therefore found to interact with all Arms and Services of the armed forces, and at all levels of the military hierarchy of command. Although concerned with research into military psychology, and particularly combat stress, and how it affect troop morale, often the bulk of military science activities is directed at military intelligence technology, military communications, and improving military capability through research. The design, development, and prototyping of weapons, military support equipment, and military technology in general, is also an area in which lots of effort is invested – it includes everything from global communication networks and aircraft carriers to paint and food. LogisticsMain article: Military logistics This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Kawasaki C-1 is a tactical military transport of the Japan Air Self-Defence ForcePossessing military capability is not sufficient if this capability cannot be deployed for, and employed in combat operations. To achieve this, military logistics are used for the logistics management and logistics planning of the forces military supply chain management, the consumables, and capital equipment of the troops. Although mostly concerned with the military transport, as a means of delivery using different modes of transport; from military trucks, to container ships operating from permanent military base, it also involves creating field supply dumps at the rear of the combat zone, and even forward supply points in specific unit's Tactical Area of Responsibility. These supply points are also used to provide military engineering services, such as the recovery of defective and derelict vehicles and weapons, maintenance of weapons in the field, the repair and field modification of weapons and equipment; and in peacetime, the life-extension programmes undertaken to allow continued use of equipment. One of the most important role of logistics is the supply of munitions as a primary type of consumable, their storage, and disposal. OperationsMain articles: Military strategy and Military tactics This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)While capability development is about enabling the military to perform its functions and roles in executing the defence policy, how personnel and their equipment are used in engaging the enemy, winning battles, successfully concluding campaigns, and eventually the war – is the responsibility of military operations. Military operations oversees the policy interpretation into military plans, allocation of capability to specific strategic, operational and tactical goals and objectives, change in posture of the armed forces, the interaction of Combat Arms, Combat Support Arms, and Combat Support Services during combat operations, defining of military missions and tasks during the conduct of combat, management of military prisoners and military civil affairs, and the military occupation of enemy territory, seizure of captured equipment, and maintenance of civil order in the territory under its responsibility. Throughout the combat operations process, and during the lulls in combat, combat military intelligence provides reporting on the status of plan completion, and its correlation with desired, expected and achieved satisfaction of policy fulfilment. Performance assessment This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The last requirement of the military is for military performance assessment, and learning from it. These two functions are performed by military historians and military theorists who seek to identify failures and success of the armed force, and integrate corrections into the military reform, with the aim of producing an improved force capable of performing adequately, should there be a national defence policy review. In combat This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The primary reason for the existence of the military is to engage in combat, should it be required to do so by the national defence policy, and to win. This represents an organisational goal of any military, and the primary focus for military thought through military history. How victory is achieved, and what shape it assumes, is studied by most, if not all, military groups on three levels. Strategic victoryMain article: Strategic victory This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Military strategy is the management of forces in wars and military campaigns by a commander-in-chief, employing large military forces, either national and allied as a whole, or the component elements of armies, navies and air forces; such as army groups, naval fleets, and large numbers of aircraft. Military strategy is a long-term projection of belligerents' policy, with a broad view of outcome implications, including outside the concerns of military command. Military strategy is more concerned with the supply of war and planning, than management of field forces and combat between them. The scope of strategic military planning can span weeks, but is more often months or even years.[31] Dutch civilians celebrating the arrival of the I Canadian Corps in Utrecht as the Canadian Army liberates the Netherlands from Nazi occupationOperational victory This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Operational mobility is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. A common synonym is operational art. The operational level is at a scale bigger than one where line of sight and the time of day are important, and smaller than the strategic level, where production and politics are considerations. Formations are of the operational level if they are able to conduct operations on their own, and are of sufficient size to be directly handled or have a significant impact at the strategic level. This concept was pioneered by the German army prior to and during the Second World War. At this level, planning and duration of activities takes from one week to a month, and are executed by Field Armies and Army Corps and their naval and air equivalents.[31] Tactical victoryMain article: Tactical victory This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Military tactics concerns itself with the methods for engaging and defeating the enemy in direct combat. Military tactics are usually used by units over hours or days, and are focused on the specific, close proximity tasks and objectives of squadrons, companies, battalions, regiments, brigades, and divisions, and their naval and air force equivalents.[31] One of the oldest military publications is The Art of War, by the Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu.[32] Written in the 6th century BCE, the 13-chapter book is intended as military instruction, and not as military theory, but has had a huge influence on Asian military doctrine, and from the late 19th century, on European and United States military planning. It has even been used to formulate business tactics, and can even be applied in social and political areas.[where?] Battle formation and tactics of Macedon[33]The Classical Greeks and the Romans wrote prolifically on military campaigning. Among the best-known Roman works are Julius Caesar's commentaries on the Gallic Wars, and the Roman Civil war – written about 50 BC. Two major works on tactics come from the late Roman period: Taktike Theoria by Aelianus Tacticus, and De Re Militari ('On military matters') by Vegetius. Taktike Theoria examined Greek military tactics, and was most influential in the Byzantine world and during the Golden Age of Islam. De Re Militari formed the basis of European military tactics until the late 17th century. Perhaps its most enduring maxim is Igitur qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum (let he who desires peace prepare for war). Due to the changing nature of combat with the introduction of artillery in the European Middle Ages, and infantry firearms in the Renaissance, attempts were made to define and identify those strategies, grand tactics, and tactics that would produce a victory more often than that achieved by the Romans in praying to the gods before the battle. Later this became known as military science, and later still, would adopt the scientific method approach to the conduct of military operations under the influence of the Industrial Revolution thinking. In his seminal book On War, the Prussian Major-General and leading expert on modern military strategy, Carl von Clausewitz defined military strategy as 'the employment of battles to gain the end of war'.[34] According to Clausewitz: strategy forms the plan of the War, and to this end it links together the series of acts which are to lead to the final decision, that is to say, it makes the plans for the separate campaigns and regulates the combats to be fought in each.[35] Hence, Clausewitz placed political aims above military goals, ensuring civilian control of the military. Military strategy was one of a triumvirate of 'arts' or 'sciences' that governed the conduct of warfare, the others being: military tactics, the execution of plans and manoeuvring of forces in battle, and maintenance of an army. The meaning of military tactics has changed over time; from the deployment and manoeuvring of entire land armies on the fields of ancient battles, and galley fleets; to modern use of small unit ambushes, encirclements, bombardment attacks, frontal assaults, air assaults, hit-and-run tactics used mainly by guerrilla forces, and, in some cases, suicide attacks on land and at sea. Evolution of aerial warfare introduced its own air combat tactics. Often, military deception, in the form of military camouflage or misdirection using decoys, is used to confuse the enemy as a tactic. A major development in infantry tactics came with the increased use of trench warfare in the 19th and 20th centuries. This was mainly employed in World War I in the Gallipoli campaign, and the Western Front. Trench warfare often turned to a stalemate, only broken by a large loss of life, because, in order to attack an enemy entrenchment, soldiers had to run through an exposed 'no man's land' under heavy fire from their opposing entrenched enemy. TechnologyMain article: Military technology This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Arrow-head. Bronze, 4th century BC. From Olynthus, Chalcidice.As with any occupation, since the ancient times, the military has been distinguished from other members of the society by their tools, the military weapons, and military equipment used in combat. When Stone Age humans first took a sliver of flint to tip the spear, it was the first example of applying technology to improve the weapon. Since then, the advances made by human societies, and that of weapons, has been irretrievably linked. Stone weapons gave way to Bronze Age weapons, and later, the Iron Age weapons. With each technological change, was realised some tangible increase in military capability, such as through greater effectiveness of a sharper edge in defeating leather armour, or improved density of materials used in manufacture of weapons. On land, the first really significant technological advance in warfare was the development of the ranged weapons, and notably, the sling. The next significant advance came with the domestication of the horses and mastering of equestrianism. Mounted armoured knight. Armour and cavalry dominated the battlefield, until the invention of firearms.Arguably, the greatest invention that affected not just the military, but all society, after adoption of fire, was the wheel, and its use in the construction of the chariot. There were no advances in military technology, until, from the mechanical arm action of a slinger, the Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, Persians, Chinese, etc., development the siege engines. The bow was manufactured in increasingly larger and more powerful versions, to increase both the weapon range, and armour penetration performance. These developed into the powerful composite and recurve bows, and crossbows of Ancient China. These proved particularly useful during the rise of cavalry, as horsemen encased in ever-more sophisticated armour came to dominate the battlefield. Somewhat earlier, in medieval China, gunpowder had been invented, and was increasingly used by the military in combat. The use of gunpowder in the early vase-like mortars in Europe, and advanced versions of the long bow and cross bow, which all had armour-piercing arrowheads, that put an end to the dominance of the armoured knight. After the long bow, which required great skill and strength to use, the next most significant technological advance was the musket, which could be used effectively, with little training. In time, the successors to muskets and cannon, in the form of rifles and artillery, would become core battlefield technology. As the speed of technological advances accelerated in civilian applications, so too warfare became more industralised. The newly invented machine gun and repeating rifle redefined firepower on the battlefield, and, in part, explains the high casualty rates of the American Civil War. The next breakthrough was the conversion of artillery parks from the muzzle loading guns, to the quicker loading breech loading guns with recoiling barrel that allowed quicker aimed fire and use of a shield. The widespread introduction of low smoke (smokeless) propellant powders since the 1880s also allowed for a great improvement of artillery ranges. The development of breech loading had the greatest effect on naval warfare, for the first time since the Middle Ages, altering the way weapons are mounted on warships, and therefore naval tactics, now divorced from the reliance on sails with the invention of the internal combustion. A further advance in military naval technology was the design of the submarine, and its weapon, the torpedo. Main battle tanks, and other heavy equipment such as armoured fighting vehicles, military aircraft, and ships, are characteristic to organised military forces. During World War I, the need to break the deadlock of trench warfare saw the rapid development of many new technologies, particularly tanks. Military aviation was extensively used, and bombers became decisive in many battles of World War II, which marked the most frantic period of weapons development in history. Many new designs, and concepts were used in combat, and all existing technologies of warfare were improved between 1939 and 1945. During the war, significant advances were made in military communications through increased use of radio, military intelligence through use of the radar, and in military medicine through use of penicillin, while in the air, the guided missile, jet aircraft, and helicopters were seen for the first time. Perhaps the most infamous of all military technologies was the creation of the atomic bomb, although the exact effects of its radiation were unknown until the early 1950s. Far greater use of military vehicles had finally eliminated the cavalry from the military force structure. AIM-7 Sparrow medium range air-to-air missile from an F-15 EagleAfter World War II, with the onset of the Cold War, the constant technological development of new weapons was institutionalised, as participants engaged in a constant 'arms race' in capability development. This constant state of weapons development continues into the present, and remains a constant drain on national resources, which some[who?] blame on the military-industrial complex. The most significant technological developments that influenced combat have been the guided missiles, which can be used by all branches of the armed services. More recently, information technology, and its use in surveillance, including space-based reconnaissance systems, have played an increasing role in military operations. The impact of information warfare that focuses on attacking command communication systems, and military databases, has been coupled with the new development in military technology, has been the use of robotic systems in intelligence combat, both in hardware and software applications. Recently, there has also been a particular focus towards the use of renewable fuels for running military vehicles on. Unlike fossil fuels, renewable fuels can be produced in any country, creating a strategic advantage. The US military has already committed itself to have 50% of its energy consumption come from alternative sources.[36] As part of society This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)For much of military history, the armed forces were considered to be for use by the heads of their societies, until recently, the crowned heads of states. In a democracy or other political system run in the public interest, it is a public force. The relationship between the military and the society it serves is a complicated and ever-evolving one. Much depends on the nature of the society itself, and whether it sees the military as important, as for example in time of threat or war, or a burdensome expense typified by defence cuts in time of peace. One difficult matter in the relation between military and society is control and transparency. In some countries, limited information on military operations and budgeting is accessible for the public. However transparency in the military sector is crucial to fight corruption. This showed the Government Defence Anti-corruption Index Transparency International UK published in 2013.[37] These relationships are seen from the perspective of political-military relations, the military-industrial complex mentioned above, and the socio-military relationship. The last can be divided between those segments of society that offer support for the military, those who voice opposition to the military, the voluntary and involuntary civilians in the military forces, the populations of civilians in a combat zone, and of course the military's self-perception. Militaries often function as societies within societies, by having their own military communities, economies, education, medicine, and other aspects of a functioning civilian society. Although a 'military' is not limited to nations in of itself as many private military companies (or PMC's) can be used or 'hired' by organisations and figures as security, escort, or other means of protection; where police, agencies, or militaries are absent or not trusted. Ideology and ethicsMain article: Militarism This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Militarist ideology is the society's social attitude of being best served, or being a beneficiary of a government, or guided by concepts embodied in the military culture, doctrine, system, or leaders. Either because of the cultural memory, national history, or the potentiality of a military threat, the militarist argument asserts that a civilian population is dependent upon, and thereby subservient to the needs and goals of its military for continued independence. Militarism is sometimes contrasted with the concepts of comprehensive national power, soft power and hard power. Most nations have separate military laws which regulate conduct in war and during peacetime. An early exponent was Hugo Grotius, whose On the Law of War and Peace (1625) had a major impact of the humanitarian approach to warfare development. His theme was echoed by Gustavus Adolphus. Ethics of warfare have developed since 1945, to create constraints on the military treatment of prisoners and civilians, primarily by the Geneva Conventions; but rarely apply to use of the military forces as internal security troops during times of political conflict that results in popular protests and incitement to popular uprising. International protocols restrict the use, or have even created international bans on weapons, notably weapons of mass destruction (WMD). International conventions define what constitutes a war crime, and provides for war crimes prosecution. Individual countries also have elaborate codes of military justice, an example being the United States' Uniform Code of Military Justice that can lead to court martial for military personnel found guilty of war crimes. Military actions are sometimes argued to be justified by furthering a humanitarian cause, such as disaster relief operations, or in defence of refugees. The term military humanism is used to refer to such actions. Stereotypes This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)A military brat is a colloquial term for a child with at least one parent who served as an active duty member (vice reserve) in the armed forces. Children of armed forces members may move around to different military bases or international postings, which gives them a childhood differing from the norm. Unlike common usage of the term brat, when it is used in this context, it is not necessarily a derogatory term. In the mediaMain article: Military in the media This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Soldiers and armies have been prominent in popular culture since the beginnings of recorded history. In addition to the countless images of military leaders in heroic poses from antiquity, they have been an enduring source of inspiration in war literature. Not all of this has been entirely complementary, and the military have been lampooned or ridiculed as often as they have been idolised. The classical Greek writer Aristophanes, devoted an entire comedy, Lysistrata, to a strike organised by military wives, where they withhold sex from their husbands to prevent them from going to war. In Medieval Europe, tales of knighthood and chivalry, the officer class of the period captured the popular imagination. Writers and poets like Taliesin, Chrétien de Troyes and Thomas Malory wrote tales of derring-do, featuring Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot and Galahad. Even in the 21st century, books and films about the Arthurian legend and the Holy Grail continue to appear. A century or so later, in the hands of writers such as Jean Froissart, Miguel Cervantes and William Shakespeare, the fictional knight Tirant lo Blanch, and the real-life condottieri John Hawkwood would be juxtaposed against the fantastical Don Quixote, and the carousing Sir John Falstaff. In just one play, Henry V, Shakespeare provides a whole range of military characters, from cool-headed and clear-sighted generals, to captains, and common soldiery. Emperor Augustus Caesar in a martial pose (1st century) The Flight of Pompey after Pharsalus, by Jean Fouquet Medieval view: Richard II of England meets rebels Sir John Hawkwood (fresco in the Duomo, Florence) Shakespeare's Sir John Falstaff by Eduard von Grützner 'The Cruel Practices of Prince Rupert' (1643) The rapid growth of movable type in the late 16th century and early 17th century saw an upsurge in private publication. Political pamphlets became popular, often lampooning military leaders for political purposes. A pamphlet directed against Prince Rupert of the Rhine is a typical example. During the 19th century, irreverence towards authority was at its height, and for every elegant military gentleman painted by the master-portraitists of the European courts, for example, Gainsborough, Goya, and Reynolds, there are the sometimes affectionate and sometimes savage caricatures of Rowland and Hogarth. This continued in the 19th century, with publications like Punch in the British Empire and Le Père Duchesne in France, poking fun at the military establishment. This extended to media other print also. An enduring example is the Major-General's Song from the Gilbert and Sullivan light opera, The Pirates of Penzance, where a senior army officer is satirised for his enormous fund of irrelevant knowledge. Colonel John Hayes St Leger (detail) by Sir Joshua Reynolds Rowlandson often satirised the military 'A modern major general' (The Pirates of Penzance) Punch: war reporter, W H Russell, Crimean War The increasing importance of cinema in the early 20th century provided a new platform for depictions of military subjects. During the First World War, although heavily censored, newsreels enabled those at home to see for themselves a heavily sanitised version of life at the front line. About the same time, both pro-war and anti-war films came to the silver screen. One of the first films on military aviation, Hell's Angels, broke all box office records on its release in 1929. Soon, war films of all types were showing throughout the world, notably those of Charlie Chaplin who actively promoted war bonds and voluntary enlistment. The First World War was also responsible for a new kind of military depiction, through poetry. Hitherto, poetry had been used mostly to glorify or sanctify war. The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, with its galloping hoofbeat rhythm, is a prime late Victorian example of this, though Rudyard Kipling had written a scathing reply, The Last of the Light Brigade, criticising the poverty in which many Light Brigade veterans found themselves in old age. Instead, the new wave of poetry, from the war poets, was written from the point of view of the disenchanted trench soldier. Leading war poets included Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, John McCrae, Rupert Brooke, Isaac Rosenberg, and David Jones. A similar movement occurred in literature, producing a slew of novels on both sides of the Atlantic, including notably: All Quiet on the Western Front, and Johnny Got His Gun. The 1963 English stage musical Oh, What a Lovely War! provided a satirical take on World War I, which was released in a cinematic version directed by Richard Attenborough in 1969. The propaganda war that accompanied World War II invariably depicted the enemy in unflattering terms. Examples of this exist not only in posters, but also in the films of Leni Riefenstahl and Sergei Eisenstein. Alongside this, World War II also inspired films as varied as The Dam Busters, 633 Squadron, Bridge on the River Kwai, The Longest Day, Catch-22, Saving Private Ryan, and The Sea Shall Not Have Them. The next major event, the Korean War inspired a long-running television series M*A*S*H. With the Vietnam War, the tide of balance turned, and its films, notably Apocalypse Now, Good Morning, Vietnam, Go Tell the Spartans, Born on the Fourth of July, and We Were Soldiers, have tended to contain critical messages. There is even a nursery rhyme about war, The Grand Old Duke of York, ridiculing a general for his inability to command any further than marching his men up and down a hill. The huge number of songs focusing on war include And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda and Universal Soldier. See alsoMilitary history portalWar portalDeterrence theoryMercenaryMilitary personnelRecruit trainingMilitary serviceConscriptionMilitary incompetenceMilitary terminologyMilitariaMilitary fiatMilitary historyMilitary juntaMilitary dictatorshipMilitary Aid to the Civil PowerMilitary Aid to the Civil CommunityStanding armyCivil-military relationsPrivate military companyArmed forces of the worldList of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnelList of countries by Military Strength IndexList of countries by level of military equipmentList of countries by Global Militarization IndexList of countries without armed forcesList of countries by military expendituresList of countries by past military expenditureList of countries by military expenditure per capitaList of air forcesList of armiesList of navies United States Armed ForcesSeals of the United States Armed Forces.pngThe seals of the five service branches of the U.S. Armed ForcesFoundedJune 14, 1775; 242 years ago[N 1]Service branches United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast GuardHeadquartersThe Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.LeadershipCommander-in-Chief President Donald TrumpSecretary of Defense James MattisSecretary of Homeland Security Kirstjen NielsenChairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen Joseph Dunford, USMC Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen Paul J. Selva, USAFSenior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman CSM John W. Troxell, USAManpowerMilitary age17 with parental consent, 18 for voluntary service. Maximum age for first-time enlistment is 35 for the Army,[1] 28 for the Marine Corps, 34 for the Navy, 39 for the Air Force[2] and 27 for the Coast Guard.[3]Active personnel1,281,900[4] (ranked 3rd)Reserve personnel811,000[4]ExpendituresBudgetUS$597 billion (2015)[5] (ranked 1st)Percent of GDP3.3% (2015)[5]IndustryDomestic suppliersListRelated articlesHistoryAmerican Revolutionary WarWhiskey RebellionIndian WarsBarbary WarsWar of 1812Patriot WarMexican–American WarUtah WarCortina TroublesReform WarAmerican Civil War New York City draft riotsLas Cuevas WarSpanish–American WarBanana WarsPhilippine–American WarBoxer RebellionBorder WarWorld War IRussian Civil WarWorld War IICold War Puerto Rican Nationalist RevoltsKorean War1958 Lebanon crisisDominican Civil WarBay of Pigs InvasionCuban Missile CrisisVietnam WarKorean DMZ ConflictOperation Eagle ClawMultinational Force LebanonInvasion of GrenadaOperation Golden PheasantInvasion of PanamaPersian Gulf WarSomali Civil War Operation Gothic SerpentBattle of MogadishuBosnian War Operation Deliberate ForceOperation Deny FlightKosovo War Operation Allied ForceGlobal War on Terrorism Operation Enduring FreedomWar in AfghanistanPhilippinesHorn of AfricaTrans SaharaIraq WarWar in North-West PakistanMilitary deployment after Hurricane KatrinaPakistan–United States skirmishesIntervention against ISIL OtherRanksArmy Army officerArmy warrant officerArmy enlistedMarine Corps Marine Corps officerMarine Corps warrant officerMarine Corps enlistedNavy Navy officerNavy warrant officerNavy enlistedAir Force Air Force officerAir Force enlistedCoast Guard Coast Guard officerCoast Guard warrant officerCoast Guard enlistedThe United States Armed Forces[6] are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard.[7] The President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Armed Forces and forms military policy with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States.[8] From the time of its inception, the U.S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. Even so, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force. It played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U.S. military framework. The Act merged the previously Cabinet-level Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (renamed the Department of Defense in 1949), headed by the Secretary of Defense; and created the Department of the Air Force and the National Security Council. The U.S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1972, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, and requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U.S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service.[9] As of 2016, the U.S. spends about US$580 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations.[4] Put together, the U.S. constitutes roughly 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U.S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful equipment and its widespread deployment of force around the world, including about 800 military bases outside the United States.[10] The U.S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U.S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, and the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps combined are the world’s second largest air arm. United States Armed ForcesWikipedia book Book Portal Portal A MC N AF CG Category Category A MC N AF CG Navbox A MC N AF CGLeadershipCommander-in-chief: President of the United States Secretary of Defense Deputy Secretary of Defense Secretary of Homeland Security Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security Joint Chiefs of Staff: Chairman Vice Chairman United States Congress: Committees on Armed Services: Senate House Active duty four-star officers United States military seniority National Security Act of 1947 Goldwater–Nichols ActOrganizationService departmentsDepartment of Defense (Secretary): Army (Secretary) Navy (Secretary) Air Force (Secretary) Department of Homeland Security (Secretary): Coast GuardBranchesArmy (Chief of Staff) Marine Corps (Commandant) Navy (Chief of Naval Operations) Air Force (Chief of Staff) Coast Guard (Commandant)Reserve componentsReserves: A MC N AF CG National Guard: A AFCivilian auxiliariesMilitary Auxiliary Radio System Merchant Marine Civil Air Patrol Coast 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Expedition Second Opium War Second Fiji Expedition Formosa Expedition Korean Expedition Spanish–American War Philippine–American War Boxer Rebellion Banana Wars Border War World War I Russian Civil War World War II Korean War Vietnam War U.S. invasion of the Dominican Republic Invasion of Grenada Lebanese Civil War Invasion of Panama Gulf War Somali Civil War Bosnian War Kosovo War Afghanistan War Iraq War War in North-West Pakistan Libyan Civil War Intervention against ISIL Iraq Syria Cameroon LibyaRelated articlesList of conflicts in the U.S. List of wars involving the U.S. Timeline of U.S. military operations Length of U.S. participation in major wars Overseas expansion Military history Covert regime-change actions Casualties of war Peace movement List of anti-war organizations Conscientious objector War on Terror[hide] v t eUnited States articlesHistoryBy eventTimeline of U.S. history Pre-Columbian era Colonial era Thirteen Colonies military history Continental Congress American Revolution War American frontier Confederation Period Drafting and ratification of Constitution Federalist Era War of 1812 Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Mexican–American War Civil War Reconstruction Era Indian Wars Gilded Age Progressive Era African-American civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968 Spanish–American War Imperialism World War I Roaring Twenties Great Depression World War II home front Nazism in the United States American Century Cold War Korean War Space Race Feminist Movement Vietnam War Post-Cold War (1991–2008) War on Terror War in Afghanistan Iraq War Recent events (2008–present)By topicOutline of U.S. history Demographic Discoveries Economic debt ceiling Inventions before 1890 1890–1945 1946–91 after 1991 Military Postal Technological and industrialGeographyTerritory counties federal district federal enclaves Indian reservations insular zones minor outlying islands populated places states Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains 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National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and stateOutline IndexBook Category Portal[hide] v t eNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationHistoryNorth Atlantic Treaty Summit Operations EnlargementStructureCouncil Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Air Command Land Command Maritime Command JFC Brunssum JFC Naples Allied Command Transformation Parliamentary Assembly Standardization AgreementPeopleSecretary General Chairman of the Military Committee Supreme Allied Commander Europe Supreme Allied Commander TransformationMembersAlbania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United StatesMultilateral relationsAtlantic Treaty Association Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Mediterranean Dialogue Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Partnership for PeacePortal[hide] v t eMilitary of North AmericaSovereign statesAntigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United StatesDependencies andother territoriesAnguilla Aruba Bermuda British Virgin Islands Caribbean Netherlands Cayman Islands Collectivity of Saint Martin Curaçao Greenland Guadeloupe Martinique Montserrat Puerto Rico Saint Barthélemy Saint Pierre and Miquelon Sint Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands United States Virgin Islands The British Armed Forces,[nb 3] also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They also promote Britain's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid.[7] Since the formation of a Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 (later succeeded by the United Kingdom),[8] the armed forces have seen action in a number of major wars involving the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the First World War, and the Second World War. Repeatedly emerging victorious from conflicts has allowed Britain to establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers.[9] Today, the British Armed Forces consist of: the Royal Navy, a blue-water navy with a fleet of 77 commissioned ships; the Royal Marines, a highly specialised amphibious light infantry force; the British Army, the UK's principal land warfare branch; and the Royal Air Force, a technologically sophisticated air force with a diverse operational fleet consisting of both fixed-wing and rotary aircraft. The British Armed Forces include standing forces, Regular Reserve, Volunteer Reserves and Sponsored Reserves. The Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces is the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, to whom members of the forces swear allegiance.[1] The UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the armed forces by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, as required by the Bill of Rights 1689. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence, headed by the Secretary of State for Defence. The United Kingdom is one of five recognised nuclear powers, is a permanent member on the United Nations Security Council, is a founding and leading member of the NATO military alliance, and is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained at Ascension Island, Bahrain, Belize, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, the Falkland Islands, Germany, Gibraltar, Kenya, Montserrat, Nepal, Qatar, Singapore and the United States Service branches Naval Service • Royal Navy • Royal Marines British Army Royal Air ForceHeadquartersMinistry of Defence, LondonLeadershipCommander-in-ChiefQueen Elizabeth II[1]Defence SecretaryGavin WilliamsonChief of the Defence StaffAir Chief Marshal Sir Stuart PeachManpowerMilitary age16ConscriptionNoActive personnel153,770[nb 1]Reserve personnel81,850[nb 2]ExpendituresBudget£49 billion; FY 2018–19[4](≈$69.2 billion)[5]Percent of GDP2.0%; FY 2018–19[6]IndustryDomestic suppliersBAE SystemsRolls-Royce HoldingsRelated articlesHistoryMilitary history of the United KingdomConflicts involving the UK United Kingdom Her Majesty's Armed ForcesHer Majesty Queen Elizabeth IIPrime Minister: The Rt Hon. Theresa May MPSecretary of State for Defence: The Rt Hon. Gavin Williamson MPChief of the Defence Staff: Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart PeachVice-Chief of the Defence Staff: General Sir Gordon Messenger Flag of the British Army (1938-present).svg Army (Chief) Naval ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Navy/Marines (Chief) Air Force Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Air Force (Chief) [hide] v t eUnited Kingdom Ministry of DefenceHeadquarters: Main Building, Palace of WhitehallArmed ForcesUnited Kingdom Naval Service Royal Navy Royal Marines Army Royal Air ForceDefence CouncilPoliticalSecretary of State for Defence Minister of State for the Armed Forces Minister for Defence Procurement Minister of State (House of Lords) Parliamentary Under Secretary of State and Minister for Defence Personnel and VeteransMilitaryChief of the Defence Staff Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff Chief of the Naval Staff and First Sea Lord Chief of the General Staff Chief of the Air Staff Commander Joint Forces CommandCivil ServicePermanent Under Secretary of State for Defence Chief Scientific Adviser Chief of Defence Materiel (not in the Defence Council) Chief of Defence People Director-General Finance Director-General Head Office and Commissioning Services Director-General Nuclear Director-General Security Policy Lead Non-Executive Board Member Non-Executive Defence Board Member and Chair of the People Committee Non-Executive Defence Board Member and Chair of the Defence Audit Committee Non-Executive Defence Board Member and Chair of the Defence Equipment and Support BoardService boardsAdmiralty Board (Navy Board) Army Board Air Force BoardService commandsJoint Forces Command Headquarters Air Command Army Headquarters Navy CommandSupport organisationsDefence Business Services Defence Equipment and Support Defence Infrastructure Organisation Defence IntelligenceExecutive agenciesDefence Electronics and Components Agency Defence Science and Technology Laboratory United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Ministry of Defence PoliceNon-departmentalpublic bodiesNational Army Museum National Museum of the Royal Navy Royal Air Force MuseumCategory Category[hide] v t eUnited Kingdom Overseas military installations of the British Armed ForcesActiveRAF Ascension Island HMS Jufair British Army Training and Support Unit Belize British Forces British Indian Ocean Territories British Forces Brunei British Forces Cyprus British Army Training Unit Suffield British Forces South Atlantic Islands British Forces Germany British Forces Gibraltar British Army Training Unit Kenya British Gurkhas Nepal Naval Party 1022 RAF Al Udeid British component, NATO Enhanced Forward PresenceDissolvedBritish Forces Overseas Hong Kong British Forces Aden British Forces BelizeBritish Forces Falkland Islands RAF Belize[hide] v t eNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationHistoryNorth Atlantic Treaty Summit Operations EnlargementStructureCouncil Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Air Command Land Command Maritime Command JFC Brunssum JFC Naples Allied Command Transformation Parliamentary Assembly Standardization AgreementPeopleSecretary General Chairman of the Military Committee Supreme Allied Commander Europe Supreme Allied Commander TransformationMembersAlbania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United StatesMultilateral relationsAtlantic Treaty Association Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Mediterranean Dialogue Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Partnership for PeacePortal[hide] v t eCommon Security and Defence Policy of the European UnionLeadershipHigh Representative Director General of the Military Staff Chairman of the Military Committee European Council Foreign Affairs CouncilOrganisationExternal Action ServiceMilitary Staff (Military Planning and Conduct Capability) Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability Intelligence and Situation Centre (Club de Berne) Crisis Management and Planning Directorate Security & Defence CollegeAgenciesDefence Agency Border and Coast Guard Agency Institute for Security Studies Satellite CentreCouncil preparatory bodiesCommittee of Permanent Representatives Political and Security Committee Politico-Military Group Military Committee Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis ManagementPoliciesGlobal Strategy Defence Fund Annual ReviewOther arrangementsPermanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO; TEU, Article 42.6) Headline Goal 2010 Berlin Plus agreement Military Erasmus Military Mobility (PESCO)EquipmentGalileo navigation system Secure Software-defined Radio (PESCO)DecorationsService medal Medal for Extraordinary Meritorious Service Monitor mission medal[hide] v t eDefence forces of the European UnionSee also: Movement Coordination Centre · Air Group · Finabel · Organisation of Military Associations · Organisation for Joint Armament CooperationNationalPESCO participantsAustria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain SwedenOtherDenmark Malta United KingdomMultinationalUnion levelBattlegroups Medical Corps Medical Command (PESCO) EUFOR Crisis Response Operation Core (PESCO)Provided throughTEU Article 42.3Eurocorps European Maritime Force European Gendarmerie Force Air Transport Command[hide] v t eMilitary and civilian missions of the European Union[Terrestrial] force (EUFOR)Artemis/DRC (2003) RCA (2014 – 2015) RD Congo (2006) Tchad/RCA (2008 – 2009) Concordia/FYROM (2003) Althea/BiH (2004 – present)Naval force (EUNAVFOR)Somalia (2008 – present) Mediterranean (2015 – present)Police mission (EUPOL, EUPM)Kinshasa (2005 – 2007) RD Congo (2007 – 2014) PROXIMA/FYROM (2003 – 2005) Afghanistan (?) Kinshasa (2005 – 2007) RD Congo (2007 – 2014) BiH (2003 – 2012) Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003 – 2012) Afghanistan (2007 – present) Palestinian Territories (2006 – present)Training mission (EUTM)Mali (2013 – present) RCA (2016 – present) Somalia (2010 – present)Capacity building mission (EUCAP)Sahel Mali (2014 – present) Sahel Niger (2012 – present) Somalia (2012 – Present)Border assistance mission (EUBAM)Moldova and Ukraine (2005 – present) Libya (2013 – present) Rafah (2005 – present)Rule of law mission (EULEX)Kosovo (2008 – present)Monitoring mission (EUMM)Aceh (2005 – 2006) Georgia (2008 – present)Military advisory mission (EUMAM)RCA (2015 – 2016)Aviation security mission (EUAVSEC)South Sudan (2013 – 2014)Mission in support of thesecurity sector reform (EUSSR)Guinea-Bissau (2008 – 2010)Integrated rule of law mission (EUJUST)Iraq (2015 – 2013) Georgia (2004 – 2005)Mission to provide advice and assistancefor security sector reform (EUSEC)RD Congo (2005 – 2016)Advisory mission (EUAM)Ukraine (2014 – present) Iraq (2017 – present)Police advisory team (EUPAT)FYROM (2005 – 2006)OtherAMIS EU Supporting Action (2005 – 2007) PAMECA (?)[hide] v t eHistory of the Common Security and Defence PolicySee also: Treaties of the European UnionTreaty of Dunkirk (1947) Treaty of Brussels (1948) Treaty establishing the European Defence Community (signed 1952, unratified) London and Paris Conferences (1954) Modified Brussels Treaty (1954) Western European Union (1954–2011; Flag · Assembly · Secretary-General · Service medal) Petersberg Declaration (1992) European Security and Defence Identity (1996-1999) Saint-Malo declaration (1998) Helsinki Headline Goal (1999) Seville Declarations (2002) European Security Strategy (2003) CAPECON project (2002-2005) European Security and Defence Policy (1999-2009) Lancaster House Treaties (2010) Rapid Operational Force (1995–2012) Operations Centre (2012-2016)European Union portal · Military history portal[hide] v t eMilitaries of EuropeSovereign statesAlbania Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Greenland Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican CityStates with limitedrecognitionAbkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia TransnistriaOther entitiesEuropean Union Sovereign Military Order of Malta[hide] v t eUnited Kingdom articlesHistoryChronologyFormation Georgian era Victorian era Edwardian era First World War Interwar Second World War UK since 1945 (social history)By topicEconomic Empire Maritime MilitaryGeographyAdministrativeCountries of the United Kingdom Crown dependencies Overseas territories City status Towns Former coloniesPhysicalBritish Isles terminology Great Britain Coastline Geology Lakes and lochs Mountains Rivers VolcanoesResourcesEnergy/Renewable energy Biodiesel Coal Geothermal Hydraulic frac. 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Military ranks and the military rank system define among others dominance, authority, as well as roles and responsibility in a military hierarchy. The military rank system incorporates the principles of exercising power and authority, and the military chain of command – the succession of commanders superior to subordinates through which command is exercised – constructs an important component for organized collective action.[3] Usually, uniforms denote the bearer's rank by particular insignia affixed to the uniforms. Ranking systems have been known for most of military history to be advantageous for military operations, in particular with regards to logistics, command, and coordination; as time went on and military operations became larger and more complex, military ranks increased and ranking systems themselves became more complex. Within modern armed forces, the use of ranks is almost universal. Communist states have sometimes abolished ranks (e.g., the Soviet Red Army 1918–1935,[4] the Chinese People's Liberation Army 1965–1988,[5] and the Albanian Army 1966–1991[6]), only to re-establish them after encountering operational difficulties of command and control. Part of a series onWarHistory[hide]Prehistoric Ancient Post-classicalEarly ModernLate Modern Industrial Fourth-GenBattlespace[hide]Air Cyber Information Land Mountain Sea SpaceWeapons[hide]Armor Artillery Biological Cavalry Chemical Conventional Cyber Electronic Infantry Nuclear Psychological UnconventionalTactics[hide]Aerial Battle Cavalry Charge Counterattack Counter-insurgency Cover Foxhole Guerrilla warfare Morale Siege Swarming Tactical objective Trench warfareOperational[hide]Blitzkrieg Deep operation Maneuver warfare Operational manoeuvre groupStrategy[hide]Attrition Counter-offensive Deception Defensive Goal Naval OffensiveGrand strategy[hide]Containment Economic warfare Limited war Military science Philosophy of war Strategic studies Total warOrganization[hide]Command and control Doctrine Engineers Intelligence Ranks Technology and equipmentPersonnel[hide]Military recruitment Conscription Recruit training Military specialism Women in the military Children in the military Transgender people and military service Sexual harassment in the military Conscientious objection Counter recruitmentLogistics[hide]Arms industry Materiel Supply chain managementRelated[hide]Asymmetric warfare Broken-Backed War Theory Court-martial Cold war Deterrence theory Horses in warfare Irregular warfare Law of war Mercenary Military campaign Military operation Network-centric warfare Operations research Principles of war Proxy war Religious war Theater Tripwire force War crime War film War game War novel Wartime sexual violence Women in war World war Colonial warLists[hide]Battles Military occupations Military tactics Operations Sieges War crimes Wars Weapons Writers Common military ranks in EnglishNaviesArmiesAir forcesCommissioned officersAdmiral ofthe fleetField marshal orGeneral of the armyMarshal ofthe air forceAdmiralGeneralAir chief marshalVice admiralLieutenant generalAir marshalRear admiralMajor generalAir vice-marshalCommodoreBrigadier orbrigadier generalAir commodoreCaptainColonelGroup captainCommanderLieutenant colonelWing commanderLieutenantcommanderMajor orCommandantSquadron leaderLieutenantCaptainFlight lieutenantLieutenantjunior grade orsub-lieutenantLieutenant orfirst lieutenantFlying officerEnsign ormidshipmanSecond lieutenantPilot officerOfficer cadetOfficer cadetFlight cadetEnlisted gradesWarrant officer orchief petty officerWarrant officer orsergeant majorWarrant officerPetty officerSergeantSergeantLeading seamanCorporal orbombardierCorporalSeamanPrivate orgunner ortrooperAircraftman orairman Condition: New without tags, Condition: Brand New, Brand: Military Belt, MPN: Does not apply, Style: Military Belt, Main Colour: Black, Features: Army, Size: 48", Theme: Army, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Material: Nylon, Size Type: Regular

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