Harry Potter Silver Time Turner Pendant Disney Jewelry Witch Craft Occult Retro

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Seller: lasvegasormonaco ✉️ (1.204) 100%, Location: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 266003218496 Harry Potter Silver Time Turner Pendant Disney Jewelry Witch Craft Occult Retro. "Warner Brothers bullying ruins Field family Xmas". Archived from the original on 3 November 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2007. Barratt 2012, p. 52. Pharr 2016, pp. 12–13. Horne 2010, p. 81. Horne 2010, p. 76. Harry Potter Time Turner Pendant This is a Hermione Rotating Time Turner Granger Hourglass Necklace Pendant from the Harry Potter Books and Film Series An authentic recreation of Hermione's Time-Turner. Featured in the movie. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. The Time-Turner is centered with a working miniature hourglass and its inner rings rotate. Plated in Fine Silver. Great piece of film memorabilia, collectable gift for any fan. Both inner rings spin & rotate, hourglass has real sand which tips from end to end. Silver with SilverSand in the Hour Glass Approx. Size Pendant is 4.5 cm diameter Chain Length 24" (61cm) Material: Alloy with Silver plated Chain Length: 55cm Hourglass Diameter: 4.3cm Weight: 30g High quality in EU and US quality standard Material: Alloy High quality and unique design Fashionable and pretty Show your charm with this necklace Suitable for banquet, date, shopping, Haparty and so on An excellent add on to any Harry Potter Fancy Dress Gorgeous ornament for you and your friends This Harry Potter Time Turner Necklace was inspired by the series of books and films. Fully articulated this prop replica the words of the secret spell are engraved around the edge. Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake Click Here to Check out my other Fantasy Items! Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 600 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks Also if bidding from overseas and you want your item tracked please select the International Signed for Postage Option For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain! If You Have any Questions Please Message me through ebay and I Will Reply ASAP Thanks for Looking! 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Click here for more information. Page semi-protected Listen to this article Harry Potter From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the series of novels. For other uses, see Harry Potter (disambiguation). Harry Potter The Harry Potter logo first used for the American edition of the novel series (and some other editions worldwide), and then the film series. Philosopher's Stone (1997) Chamber of Secrets (1998) Prisoner of Azkaban (1999) Goblet of Fire (2000) Order of the Phoenix (2003) Half-Blood Prince (2005) Deathly Hallows (2007) Author J. K. Rowling Cover artist Mary GrandPré Country United Kingdom Language English Genre Fantasy Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing (UK) Published 26 June 1997 – 21 July 2007 (initial publication) Media type Print (hardback & paperback) Audiobook E-book No. of books 7 Website www.wizardingworld.com Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The novels chronicle the lives of a young wizard, Harry Potter, and his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry's struggle against Lord Voldemort, a dark wizard who intends to become immortal, overthrow the wizard governing body known as the Ministry of Magic and subjugate all wizards and Muggles (non-magical people). The series was originally published in English by Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press in the United States. All versions around the world are printed by Grafica Veneta in Italy.[1] A series of many genres, including fantasy, drama, coming of age, and the British school story (which includes elements of mystery, thriller, adventure, horror, and romance), the world of Harry Potter explores numerous themes and includes many cultural meanings and references.[2] According to Rowling, the main theme is death.[3] Other major themes in the series include prejudice, corruption, and madness.[4] Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, on 26 June 1997, the books have found immense popularity, positive reviews, and commercial success worldwide. They have attracted a wide adult audience as well as younger readers and are often considered cornerstones of modern young adult literature.[5] As of February 2018, the books have sold more than 500 million copies worldwide, making them the best-selling book series in history, and have been translated into more than eighty languages.[6] The last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history, with the final instalment selling roughly 2.7 million copies in the United Kingdom and 8.3 million copies in the United States within twenty-four hours of its release. The original seven books were adapted into an eight-part namesake film series by Warner Bros. Pictures. In 2016, the total value of the Harry Potter franchise was estimated at $25 billion,[7] making Harry Potter one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. Harry Potter and the Cursed Child is a play based on a story co-written by Rowling. The success of the books and films has allowed the Harry Potter franchise to expand with numerous derivative works, a travelling exhibition that premiered in Chicago in 2009, a studio tour in London that opened in 2012, a digital platform on which J. K. Rowling updates the series with new information and insight, and a pentalogy of spin-off films premiering in November 2016 with Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, among many other developments. Themed attractions, collectively known as The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, have been built at several Universal Parks & Resorts amusement parks around the world. Contents 1 Plot 1.1 Early years 1.2 Voldemort returns 2 Style and allusions 2.1 Genre and style 2.2 Allusions 3 Themes 4 Development history 4.1 Publishing history 4.2 Translations 4.3 Cover art 5 Reception 5.1 Commercial success 5.2 Literary criticism 5.3 Thematic critique 5.4 Controversies 6 Legacy 6.1 Influence on literature 6.2 Cultural impact 7 Awards, honours, and recognition 8 Adaptations 8.1 Films 8.2 Games 8.3 Stage production 8.4 Television 9 Attractions 10 Supplementary works 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 Further reading 15 External links Plot Further information: Fictional universe of Harry Potter Early years "The Elephant House", a small, painted red café where Rowling wrote a few chapters of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone The Elephant House was one of the cafés in Edinburgh where Rowling wrote the first part of Harry Potter. The series follows the life of a boy named Harry Potter. In the first book, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Harry lives in a cupboard under the stairs in the house of the Dursleys, his aunt, uncle and cousin. The Dursleys consider themselves perfectly normal, but at the age of eleven, Harry discovers that he is a wizard. He meets a half-giant named Hagrid who invites him to attend the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry learns that as a baby, his parents were murdered by the dark wizard Lord Voldemort. When Voldemort attempted to kill Harry, his curse rebounded and Harry survived with a lightning-shaped scar on his forehead. Harry becomes a student at Hogwarts and is sorted into Gryffindor House. He gains the friendship of Ron Weasley, a member of a large but poor wizarding family, and Hermione Granger, a witch of non-magical, or Muggle, parentage. Harry encounters the school's potions master, Severus Snape, who displays a dislike for him; the rich pure-blood Draco Malfoy whom he develops an enmity with; and the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, Quirinus Quirrell, who turns out to be allied with Lord Voldemort. The first book concludes with Harry's confrontation with Voldemort, who, in his quest to regain a body, yearns to gain the power of the Philosopher's Stone, a substance that bestows everlasting life. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets describes Harry's second year at Hogwarts. Students are attacked and petrified by an unknown creature; wizards of Muggle parentage are the primary targets. The attacks appear related to the Chamber of Secrets, a fifty-year-old mystery at the school. Harry discovers an ability to speak the snake language Parseltongue, which he learns is rare and associated with the Dark Arts. When Hermione is attacked, Harry and Ron uncover the chamber's secrets and enter it. Harry discovers that the chamber was opened by Ron's younger sister, Ginny Weasley, who was possessed by an old diary in her belongings. The memory of Tom Marvolo Riddle, Voldemort's younger self, resided inside the diary and unleashed the basilisk, an ancient monster that kills those who make direct eye contact. Harry draws the Sword of Gryffindor from the Sorting Hat, slays the basilisk and destroys the diary. In the third novel, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Harry learns that he is targeted by Sirius Black, an escaped convict who allegedly assisted in his parents' murder. As Harry struggles with his reaction to the dementors – creatures guarding the school that feed on despair – he reaches out to Remus Lupin, a new professor who teaches him the Patronus charm. On a windy night, Ron is dragged by a black dog into the Shrieking Shack; Harry and Hermione follow. The dog is revealed to be Sirius Black. Lupin enters the shack and explains that Black was James Potter's best friend; he was framed by Peter Pettigrew, who hides as Ron's pet rat, Scabbers. As the full moon rises, Lupin transforms into a werewolf and bounds away; the group chase after him but are surrounded by dementors. They are saved by a mysterious figure who casts a stag Patronus. This is later revealed to be a future version of Harry, who traveled back in time with Hermione using the Time Turner. The duo help Sirius escape on a Hippogriff. Voldemort returns The former 1st floor Nicholson's Cafe now renamed Spoon in Edinburgh where J. K. Rowling wrote the first few chapters of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone In Harry's fourth year of school (detailed in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire), he is unwillingly entered in the Triwizard Tournament, a contest between schools of witchcraft and wizardry. Harry is Hogwarts' second participant after Cedric Diggory, an unusual occurrence that causes his friends to distance themselves from him. He competes against schools Beauxbaton and Durmstrang with the help of the new Defence Against the Dark Arts professor, Alastor "Mad-Eye" Moody. Harry claims the Triwizard Cup with Cedric, but in doing so is teleported to a graveyard where Voldemort's supporters convene. Moody reveals himself be to Barty Crouch, Jr, a Death Eater. Harry manages to escape, but Cedric is killed and Voldemort is resurrected using Harry's blood. In the fifth book, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, the Ministry of Magic refuses to believe that Voldemort has returned. Dumbledore re-activates the Order of the Phoenix, a secret society to counter Voldemort; meanwhile, the Ministry appoints Dolores Umbridge as the High Inquisitor of Hogwarts. Umbridge bans the Defense Against the Dark Arts; in response, Hermione and Ron form "Dumbledore's Army", a secret group where Harry teaches what Umbridge forbids. Harry is punished for disobeying Umbridge, and dreams of a dark corridor in the Ministry of Magic. Near the end of the book, Harry falsely dreams of Sirius being tortured; he races to the Ministry where he faces Death Eaters. The Order of the Phoenix saves the teenagers' lives, but Sirius is killed. A prophecy concerning Harry and Voldemort is then revealed: one must die at the hands of the other. In the sixth book, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Snape teaches Defense Against the Dark Arts while Horace Slughorn becomes the Potions master. Harry finds an old textbook with annotations by the Half-Blood Prince, due to which he achieves success in Potions class. Harry also takes lessons with Dumbledore, viewing memories about the early life of Voldemort in a device called a Pensieve. Harry learns from a drunken Slughorn that he used to teach Tom Riddle, and that Voldemort divided his soul into pieces, creating a series of Horcruxes. Harry and Dumbledore travel to a distant lake to destroy a Horcrux; they succeed, but Dumbledore weakens. On their return, they find Draco Malfoy and Death Eaters attacking the school. The book ends with the killing of Dumbledore by Professor Snape, the titular Half-Blood Prince. In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the seventh novel in the series, Lord Voldemort gains control of the Ministry of Magic. Harry, Ron and Hermione learn about the Deathly Hallows, legendary items that lead to mastery over death. The group infiltrate the ministry, where they steal a locket Horcrux, and visit Godric's Hollow, where they are attacked by Nagini. A silver doe Patronus leads them to the Sword of Gryffindor, with which they destroy the locket. They steal a Horcrux from Gringotts and travel to Hogwarts, culminating in a battle with Death Eaters. Snape is killed by Voldemort out of paranoia, but lends Harry his memories before he dies. Harry learns that Snape was always loyal to Dumbledore, and that he himself is a Horcrux. Harry surrenders to Voldemort and dies. The defenders of Hogwarts continue to fight on; Harry is resurrected, faces Voldemort and kills him. An epilogue titled "Nineteen Years Later" describes the lives of the surviving characters and the impact of Voldemort's death. Harry and Ginny are married with three children, and Ron and Hermione are married with two children. Style and allusions Genre and style The novels fall into the genre of fantasy literature, and qualify as a type of fantasy called "urban fantasy", "contemporary fantasy", or "low fantasy". They are mainly dramas, and maintain a fairly serious and dark tone throughout, though they do contain some notable instances of tragicomedy and black humour. In many respects, they are also examples of the bildungsroman, or coming of age novel,[8] and contain elements of mystery, adventure, horror, thriller, and romance. The books are also, in the words of Stephen King, "shrewd mystery tales",[9] and each book is constructed in the manner of a Sherlock Holmes-style mystery adventure. The stories are told from a third person limited point of view with very few exceptions (such as the opening chapters of Philosopher's Stone, Goblet of Fire and Deathly Hallows and the first two chapters of Half-Blood Prince). The series can be considered part of the British children's boarding school genre, which includes Rudyard Kipling's Stalky & Co., Enid Blyton's Malory Towers, St. Clare's and the Naughtiest Girl series, and Frank Richards's Billy Bunter novels: the Harry Potter books are predominantly set in Hogwarts, a fictional British boarding school for wizards, where the curriculum includes the use of magic.[10] In this sense they are "in a direct line of descent from Thomas Hughes's Tom Brown's School Days and other Victorian and Edwardian novels of British public school life", though they are, as many note, more contemporary, grittier, darker, and more mature than the typical boarding school novel, addressing serious themes of death, love, loss, prejudice, coming-of-age, and the loss of innocence in a 1990s British setting.[11][12] In Harry Potter, Rowling juxtaposes the extraordinary against the ordinary.[13] Her narrative features two worlds: a contemporary world inhabited by non-magical people called Muggles, and another featuring wizards. It differs from typical portal fantasy in that its magical elements stay grounded in the mundane.[14] Paintings move and talk; books bite readers; letters shout messages; and maps show live journeys, making the wizarding world both exotic and familiar.[13][15] This blend of realistic and romantic elements extends to Rowling's characters. Their names are often onomatopoeic: Malfoy is difficult, Filch unpleasant and Lupin a werewolf.[16][17] Harry is ordinary and relatable, with down-to-earth features such as wearing broken glasses;[18] the scholar Roni Natov terms him an "everychild".[19] These elements serve to highlight Harry when he is heroic, making him both an everyman and a fairytale hero.[18][20] Each of the seven books is set over the course of one school year. Harry struggles with the problems he encounters, and dealing with them often involves the need to violate some school rules. If students are caught breaking rules, they are often disciplined by Hogwarts professors. The stories reach their climax in the summer term, near or just after final exams, when events escalate far beyond in-school squabbles and struggles, and Harry must confront either Voldemort or one of his followers, the Death Eaters, with the stakes a matter of life and death – a point underlined, as the series progresses, by characters being killed in each of the final four books.[21][22] In the aftermath, he learns important lessons through exposition and discussions with head teacher and mentor Albus Dumbledore. The only exception to this school-centred setting is the final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, in which Harry and his friends spend most of their time away from Hogwarts, and only return there to face Voldemort at the dénouement.[21] Allusions The Harry Potter stories feature imagery and motifs drawn from Arthurian myth and fairytales. Harry's ability to draw the Sword of Gryffindor from the Sorting Hat resembles the Arthurian sword in the stone legend.[23] His life with the Dursleys has been compared to Cinderella.[24] Hogwarts resembles a medieval university-cum-castle with several professors who belong to an Order of Merlin; Old Professor Binns still lectures about the International Warlock Convention of 1289; and a real historical person, a 14th-century scribe, Sir Nicolas Flamel, is described as a holder of the Philosopher's Stone.[25] Other medieval elements in Hogwarts include coats-of-arms and medieval weapons on the walls, letters written on parchment and sealed with wax, the Great Hall of Hogwarts which is similar to the Great Hall of Camelot, the use of Latin phrases, the tents put up for Quidditch tournaments are similar to the "marvellous tents" put up for knightly tournaments, imaginary animals like dragons and unicorns which exist around Hogwarts, and the banners with heraldic animals for the four Houses of Hogwarts.[25] Many of the motifs of the Potter stories such as the hero's quest invoking objects that confer invisibility, magical animals and trees, a forest full of danger and the recognition of a character based upon scars are drawn from medieval French Arthurian romances.[25] Other aspects borrowed from French Arthurian romances include the use of owls as messengers, werewolves as characters, and white deer.[25] The American scholars Heather Arden and Kathrn Lorenz in particular argue that many aspects of the Potter stories are inspired by a 14th-century French Arthurian romance, Claris et Laris, writing of the "startling" similarities between the adventures of Potter and the knight Claris.[25] Arden and Lorenz noted that Rowling graduated from the University of Exeter in 1986 with a degree in French literature and spent a year living in France afterwards.[25] Like C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia, Harry Potter also contains Christian symbolism and allegory. The series has been viewed as a Christian moral fable in the psychomachia tradition, in which stand-ins for good and evil fight for supremacy over a person's soul.[26] Children's literature critic Joy Farmer sees parallels between Harry and Jesus Christ.[27] Comparing Rowling with Lewis, she argues that "magic is both authors' way of talking about spiritual reality".[28] According to Maria Nikolajeva, Christian imagery is particularly strong in the final scenes of the series: Harry dies in self-sacrifice and Voldemort delivers an "ecce homo" speech, after which Harry is resurrected and defeats his enemy.[29] Rowling stated that she did not reveal Harry Potter's religious parallels in the beginning because doing so would have "give[n] too much away to fans who might then see the parallels".[30] In the final book of the series Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Rowling makes the book's Christian imagery more explicit, quoting both Matthew 6:21 and 1 Corinthians 15:26 (King James Version) when Harry visits his parents' graves.[30] Hermione Granger teaches Harry Potter that the meaning of these verses from the Christian Bible are "living beyond death. Living after death", which Rowling states "epitomize the whole series".[30][31][32] Rowling also exhibits Christian values in developing Albus Dumbledore as a God-like character, the divine, trusted leader of the series, guiding the long-suffering hero along his quest. In the seventh novel, Harry speaks with and questions the deceased Dumbledore much like a person of faith would talk to and question God.[33] Themes J.K. Rowling, a blond, blue-eyed woman, who is the author of the series The novelist, J. K. Rowling Harry Potter's overarching theme is death.[34][35] In the first book, when Harry looks into the Mirror of Erised, he feels both joy and "a terrible sadness" at seeing his desire: his parents, alive and with him.[36] Confronting their loss is central to Harry's character arc and manifests in different ways through the series, such as in his struggles with Dementors.[36][37] Other characters in Harry's life die; he even faces his own death in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows.[38] The series has an existential perspective – Harry must grow mature enough to accept death.[39] In Harry's world, death is not binary but mutable, a state that exists in degrees.[40] Unlike Voldemort, who evades death by separating and hiding his soul in seven parts, Harry's soul is whole, nourished by friendship and love.[39] Love distinguishes Harry and Voldemort. Harry is a hero because he loves others, even willing to accept death to save them; Voldemort is a villain because he does not.[41] Harry carries the protection of his mother's sacrifice in his blood; Voldemort, who wants Harry's blood and the protection it carries, does not understand that love vanquishes death.[27] Rowling has spoken about thematising death and loss in the series. Soon after she started writing Philosopher's Stone, her mother died; she said that "I really think from that moment on, death became a central, if not the central theme of the seven books".[42] Rowling has described Harry as "the prism through which I view death", and further stated that "all of my characters are defined by their attitude to death and the possibility of death".[43] While Harry Potter can be viewed as a story about good vs. evil, its moral divisions are not absolute.[44][45] First impressions of characters are often misleading. Harry assumes in the first book that Quirrell is on the side of good because he opposes Snape, who appears to be malicious; in reality, Quirrell is an agent of Voldemort, while Snape is loyal to Dumbledore. This pattern later recurs with Moody and Snape.[44] In Rowling's world, good and evil are choices rather than inherent attributes: second chances and the possibility of redemption are key themes of the series.[46][47] This is reflected in Harry's self-doubts after learning his connections to Voldemort, such as Parseltongue;[46] and prominently in Snape's characterisation, which has been described as complex and multifaceted.[48] In some scholars' view, while Rowling's narrative appears on the surface to be about Harry, her focus may actually be on Snape's morality and character arc.[49][50] Rowling said that, to her, the moral significance of the tales seems "blindingly obvious". In the fourth book, Dumbledore speaks of a "choice between what is right and what is easy"; Rowling views this as a key theme, "because that ... is how tyranny is started, with people being apathetic and taking the easy route and suddenly finding themselves in deep trouble".[51] Academics and journalists have developed many other interpretations of themes in the books, some more complex than others, and some including political subtexts. Themes such as normality, oppression, survival, and overcoming imposing odds have all been considered as prevalent throughout the series.[52] Similarly, the theme of making one's way through adolescence and "going over one's most harrowing ordeals – and thus coming to terms with them" has also been considered.[53] Rowling has stated that the books comprise "a prolonged argument for tolerance, a prolonged plea for an end to bigotry" and that they also pass on a message to "question authority and... not assume that the establishment or the press tells you all of the truth".[54] Development history Main article: Harry Potter influences and analogues In 1990, Rowling was on a crowded train from Manchester to London when the idea for Harry suddenly "fell into her head". Rowling gives an account of the experience on her website saying:[55] "I had been writing almost continuously since the age of six but I had never been so excited about an idea before. I simply sat and thought, for four (delayed train) hours, and all the details bubbled up in my brain, and this scrawny, black-haired, bespectacled boy who did not know he was a wizard became more and more real to me." Rowling completed Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in 1995 and the manuscript was sent off to several prospective agents.[56] The second agent she tried, Christopher Little, offered to represent her and sent the manuscript to several publishers.[57] Publishing history The logo used in British, Australian, and Canadian editions before 2010, which uses the typeface Cochin Bold[58] After twelve other publishers had rejected Philosopher's Stone, Bloomsbury agreed to publish the book.[59] Despite Rowling's statement that she did not have any particular age group in mind when beginning to write the Harry Potter books, the publishers initially targeted children aged nine to eleven.[60] On the eve of publishing, Rowling was asked by her publishers to adopt a more gender-neutral pen name in order to appeal to the male members of this age group, fearing that they would not be interested in reading a novel they knew to be written by a woman. She elected to use J. K. Rowling (Joanne Kathleen Rowling), using her grandmother's name as her second name because she has no middle name.[61][62] Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was published by Bloomsbury, the publisher of all Harry Potter books in the United Kingdom, on 26 June 1997.[63] It was released in the United States on 1 September 1998 by Scholastic – the American publisher of the books – as Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone,[64] after the American rights sold for US$105,000 – a record amount for a children's book by an unknown author.[65] Scholastic feared that American readers would not associate the word "philosopher" with magic, and Rowling suggested the title Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone for the American market.[66] Rowling has later said that she regrets the change.[67] The second book, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, was originally published in the UK on 2 July 1998 and in the US on 2 June 1999. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was published a year later in the UK on 8 July 1999 and in the US on 8 September 1999.[68] Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire was published on 8 July 2000 at the same time by Bloomsbury and Scholastic.[69] Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix is the longest book in the series, at 766 pages in the UK version and 870 pages in the US version.[70] It was published worldwide in English on 21 June 2003.[71] Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was published on 16 July 2005.[72][73] The seventh and final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was published on 21 July 2007.[74] Rowling herself has stated that the last chapter of the final book (in fact, the epilogue) was completed "in something like 1990".[75] Rowling retained rights to digital editions and released them on the Pottermore website in 2012. Vendors such as displayed the ebooks in the form of links to Pottermore, which controlled pricing.[76] All seven Harry Potter books have been released in unabridged audiobook versions, with Stephen Fry reading the UK editions and Jim Dale voicing the series for the American editions.[77][78] Translations Main article: Harry Potter in translation The Russian translation of The Deathly Hallows goes on sale in Moscow, 2007. The series has been translated into more than 80 languages,[6] placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history. The books have seen translations to diverse languages such as Korean, Armenian, Ukrainian, Arabic, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Bulgarian, Welsh, Afrikaans, Albanian, Latvian, Vietnamese and Hawaiian. The first volume has been translated into Latin and even Ancient Greek,[79] making it the longest published work in Ancient Greek since the novels of Heliodorus of Emesa in the 3rd century AD.[80] The second volume has also been translated into Latin.[81] Some of the translators hired to work on the books were well-known authors before their work on Harry Potter, such as Viktor Golyshev, who oversaw the Russian translation of the series' fifth book. The Turkish translation of books two to seven was undertaken by Sevin Okyay, a popular literary critic and cultural commentator.[82] For reasons of secrecy, translation on a given book could only start after it had been released in English, leading to a lag of several months before the translations were available. This led to more and more copies of the English editions being sold to impatient fans in non-English speaking countries; for example, such was the clamour to read the fifth book that its English language edition became the first English-language book ever to top the best-seller list in France.[83] The United States editions were adapted into American English to make them more understandable to a young American audience.[84] Cover art For cover art, Bloomsbury chose painted art in a classic style of design, with the first cover a watercolour and pencil drawing by illustrator Thomas Taylor showing Harry boarding the Hogwarts Express, and a title in the font Cochin Bold.[85] The first releases of the successive books in the series followed in the same style but somewhat more realistic, illustrating scenes from the books. These covers were created by first Cliff Wright and then Jason Cockroft.[86] Due to the appeal of the books among an adult audience, Bloomsbury commissioned a second line of editions in an 'adult' style. These initially used black-and-white photographic art for the covers showing objects from the books (including a very American Hogwarts Express) without depicting people, but later shifted to partial colourisation with a picture of Slytherin's locket on the cover of the final book.[citation needed] International and later editions have been created by a range of designers, including Mary GrandPré for U.S. audiences and Mika Launis in Finland.[87][88] For a later American release, Kazu Kibuishi created covers in a somewhat anime-influenced style.[89][90] Reception Commercial success See also: List of best-selling books A large crowd of fans wait outside of a Borders store in Delaware, waiting for the release of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Crowd outside a book store for the midnight release of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince The popularity of the Harry Potter series has translated into substantial financial success for Rowling, her publishers, and other Harry Potter related license holders. This success has made Rowling the first and thus far only billionaire author.[91] The books have sold more than 500 million copies worldwide and have also given rise to the popular film adaptations produced by Warner Bros., all of which have been highly successful in their own right.[92][93] The total revenue from the book sales is estimated to be around $7.7 billion.[94] The first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, has sold in excess of 120 million copies, making it one of the bestselling books in history.[95][96] The films have in turn spawned eight video games and have led to the licensing of more than 400 additional Harry Potter products. The Harry Potter brand has been estimated to be worth as much as $25 billion.[7] The great demand for Harry Potter books motivated The New York Times to create a separate best-seller list for children's literature in 2000, just before the release of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. By 24 June 2000, Rowling's novels had been on the list for 79 straight weeks; the first three novels were each on the hardcover best-seller list.[97] On 12 April 2007, Barnes & Noble declared that Deathly Hallows had broken its pre-order record, with more than 500,000 copies pre-ordered through its site.[98] For the release of Goblet of Fire, 9,000 FedEx trucks were used with no other purpose than to deliver the book.[99] Together, Barnes & Noble pre-sold more than 700,000 copies of the book.[99] In the United States, the book's initial printing run was 3.8 million copies.[99] This record statistic was broken by Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, with 8.5 million, which was then shattered by Half-Blood Prince with 10.8 million copies.[100] Within the first 24 hours of its release, 6.9 million copies of Prince were sold in the U.S.; in the United Kingdom more than two million copies were sold on the first day.[101] The initial U.S. print run for Deathly Hallows was 12 million copies, and more than a million were pre-ordered through Barnes & Noble.[102] Fans of the series were so eager for the latest instalment that bookstores around the world began holding events to coincide with the midnight release of the books, beginning with the 2000 publication of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. The events, commonly featuring mock sorting, games, face painting, and other live entertainment have achieved popularity with Potter fans and have been highly successful in attracting fans and selling books with nearly nine million of the 10.8 million initial print copies of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince sold in the first 24 hours.[103][104] The final book in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows became the fastest selling book in history, moving 11 million units in the first twenty-four hours of release.[105] The book sold 2.7 million copies in the UK and 8.3 million in the US.[73] The series has also gathered adult fans, leading to the release of two editions of each Harry Potter book, identical in text but with one edition's cover artwork aimed at children and the other aimed at adults.[106] Literary criticism Early in its history, Harry Potter received positive reviews. On publication, the first book, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, attracted attention from the Scottish newspapers, such as The Scotsman, which said it had "all the makings of a classic",[107] and The Glasgow Herald, which called it "Magic stuff".[107] Soon the English newspapers joined in, with The Sunday Times comparing it to Roald Dahl's work ("comparisons to Dahl are, this time, justified"),[107] while The Guardian called it "a richly textured novel given lift-off by an inventive wit".[107] By the time of the release of the fifth book, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, the books began to receive strong criticism from a number of literary scholars. Yale professor, literary scholar, and critic Harold Bloom raised criticisms of the books' literary merits, saying, "Rowling's mind is so governed by clichés and dead metaphors that she has no other style of writing."[108] A. S. Byatt authored an op-ed article in The New York Times calling Rowling's universe a "secondary secondary world, made up of intelligently patchworked derivative motifs from all sorts of children's literature ... written for people whose imaginative lives are confined to TV cartoons, and the exaggerated (more exciting, not threatening) mirror-worlds of soaps, reality TV and celebrity gossip."[109] Michael Rosen, a novelist and poet, advocated the books were not suited for children, as they would be unable to grasp the complex themes. Rosen also stated that "J. K. Rowling is more of an adult writer."[110] The critic Anthony Holden wrote in The Observer on his experience of judging Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban for the 1999 Whitbread Awards. His overall view of the series was negative – "the Potter saga was essentially patronising, conservative, highly derivative, dispiritingly nostalgic for a bygone Britain," and he speaks of "a pedestrian, ungrammatical prose style".[111] Ursula K. Le Guin said, "I have no great opinion of it [...] it seemed a lively kid's fantasy crossed with a 'school novel,' good fare for its age group, but stylistically ordinary, imaginatively derivative, and ethically rather mean-spirited."[112] By contrast, author Fay Weldon, while admitting that the series is "not what the poets hoped for", nevertheless goes on to say, "but this is not poetry, it is readable, saleable, everyday, useful prose."[113] The literary critic A. N. Wilson praised the Harry Potter series in The Times, stating, "There are not many writers who have JK's Dickensian ability to make us turn the pages, to weep – openly, with tears splashing – and a few pages later to laugh, at invariably good jokes ... We have lived through a decade in which we have followed the publication of the liveliest, funniest, scariest and most moving children's stories ever written."[114] Charles Taylor of Salon.com, who is primarily a movie critic,[115] took issue with Byatt's criticisms in particular. While he conceded that she may have "a valid cultural point – a teeny one – about the impulses that drive us to reassuring pop trash and away from the troubling complexities of art",[116] he rejected her claims that the series is lacking in serious literary merit and that it owes its success merely to the childhood reassurances it offers.[116] Stephen King called the series "a feat of which only a superior imagination is capable", and declared "Rowling's punning, one-eyebrow-cocked sense of humor" to be "remarkable". However, he wrote that he is "a little tired of discovering Harry at home with his horrible aunt and uncle", the formulaic beginning of all seven books.[9][117] Sameer Rahim of The Daily Telegraph disagreed, saying "It depresses me to see 16- and 17-year-olds reading the series when they could be reading the great novels of childhood such as Oliver Twist or A House for Mr Biswas."[118] The Washington Post book critic Ron Charles opined in July 2007 that "through no fault of Rowling's", the cultural and marketing "hysteria" marked by the publication of the later books "trains children and adults to expect the roar of the coliseum, a mass-media experience that no other novel can possibly provide".[119] Jenny Sawyer wrote in The Christian Science Monitor on 25 July 2007 that Harry Potter neither faces a "moral struggle" nor undergoes any ethical growth, and is thus "no guide in circumstances in which right and wrong are anything less than black and white".[120] In contrast Emily Griesinger described Harry's first passage through to Platform 9+3⁄4 as an application of faith and hope, and his encounter with the Sorting Hat as the first of many in which Harry is shaped by the choices he makes.[121] In an 8 November 2002 Slate article, Chris Suellentrop likened Potter to a "trust-fund kid whose success at school is largely attributable to the gifts his friends and relatives lavish upon him".[122] In a 12 August 2007, review of Deathly Hallows in The New York Times, however, Christopher Hitchens praised Rowling for "unmooring" her "English school story" from literary precedents "bound up with dreams of wealth and class and snobbery", arguing that she had instead created "a world of youthful democracy and diversity".[123] In 2016, an article written by Diana C. Mutz compares the politics of Harry Potter to the 2016 Donald Trump presidential campaign. She suggests that these themes are also present in the presidential election and it may play a significant role in how Americans have responded to the campaign.[124] There is ongoing discussion regarding the extent to which the series was inspired by Tolkien's Lord of the Rings books.[125] Thematic critique The portrayal of women in Harry Potter has been described as complex and varied, but nonetheless conforming to stereotypical and patriarchal depictions of gender.[126] Gender divides are ostensibly absent in the books: Hogwarts is coeducational and women hold positions of power in wizarding society. However, this setting obscures the typecasting of female characters and the general depiction of conventional gender roles.[127] According to scholars Elizabeth Heilman and Trevor Donaldson, the subordination of female characters goes further early in the series. The final three books "showcase richer roles and more powerful females": for instance, the series' "most matriarchal character", Molly Weasley, engages substantially in the final battle of Deathly Hallows, while other women are shown as leaders.[128] Hermione Granger, in particular, becomes an active and independent character essential to the protagonists' battle against evil.[129] Yet, even particularly capable female characters such as Hermione and Minerva McGonagall are placed in supporting roles,[130] and Hermione's status as a feminist model is debated.[131] Girls and women are more frequently shown as emotional, more often defined by their appearance, and less often given agency in family settings.[127][132] The social hierarchy of wizards in Rowling's world has drawn debate among critics. "Purebloods" have two wizard parents; "half-bloods" have one; and "Muggle-born" wizards have magical abilities although neither of their parents is a wizard.[133] Lord Voldemort and his followers believe that blood purity is paramount and that Muggles are subhuman.[134] According to the literary scholar Andrew Blake, Harry Potter rejects blood purity as a basis for social division;[135] Suman Gupta agrees that Voldemort's philosophy represents "absolute evil";[136] and Nel and Eccleshare agree that advocates of racial or blood-based hierarchies are antagonists.[137][138] Gupta, following Blake,[139] suggests that the essential superiority of wizards over Muggles – wizards can use magic and Muggles cannot – means that the books cannot coherently reject anti-Muggle prejudice by appealing to equality between wizards and Muggles. Rather, according to Gupta, Harry Potter models a form of tolerance based on the "charity and altruism of those belonging to superior races" towards lesser races.[140] Harry Potter's depiction of race, specifically the slavery of house-elves, has received varied responses. Scholars such as Brycchan Carey have praised the books' abolitionist sentiments, viewing Hermione's Society for the Promotion of Elfish Welfare as a model for younger readers' political engagement.[141][142] Other critics including Farah Mendlesohn find the portrayal of house-elves "most difficult to accept": the elves are denied the right to free themselves and rely on the benevolence of others like Hermione.[143][144] Pharr terms the house-elves a disharmonious element in the series, writing that Rowling leaves their fate hanging;[145] at the end of Deathly Hallows, the elves remain enslaved and cheerful.[146] Controversies Main articles: Legal disputes over the Harry Potter series, Religious debates over the Harry Potter series, Politics of Harry Potter, and Tanya Grotter The books have been the subject of a number of legal proceedings, stemming from various conflicts over copyright and trademark infringements. The popularity and high market value of the series has led Rowling, her publishers, and film distributor Warner Bros. to take legal measures to protect their copyright, which have included banning the sale of Harry Potter imitations, targeting the owners of websites over the "Harry Potter" domain name, and suing author Nancy Stouffer to counter her accusations that Rowling had plagiarised her work.[147][148][149] Various religious fundamentalists have claimed that the books promote witchcraft and religions such as Wicca and are therefore unsuitable for children,[150][151][152] while a number of critics have criticised the books for promoting various political agendas.[153][154] The Harry Potter series has landed the American Library Associations' Top 10 Banned Book List in 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2019 because it was anti-family, discussed magic and witchcraft, contained actual spells and curses, referenced the occult/Satanism, violence, and had characters who used "nefarious means" to attain goals, as well as conflicts with religious viewpoints.[155] The books also aroused controversies in the literary and publishing worlds. From 1997 to 1998, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone won almost all the UK awards judged by children, but none of the children's book awards judged by adults,[156] and Sandra Beckett suggested the reason was intellectual snobbery towards books that were popular among children.[157] In 1999, the winner of the Whitbread Book of the Year award children's division was entered for the first time on the shortlist for the main award, and one judge threatened to resign if Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was declared the overall winner; it finished second, very close behind the winner of the poetry prize, Seamus Heaney's translation of the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf.[157] In 2000, shortly before the publication of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, the previous three Harry Potter books topped The New York Times fiction best-seller list and a third of the entries were children's books. The newspaper created a new children's section covering children's books, including both fiction and non-fiction, and initially counting only hardback sales. The move was supported by publishers and booksellers.[97] In 2004, The New York Times further split the children's list, which was still dominated by Harry Potter books, into sections for series and individual books, and removed the Harry Potter books from the section for individual books.[158] The split in 2000 attracted condemnation, praise and some comments that presented both benefits and disadvantages of the move.[159] Time suggested that, on the same principle, Billboard should have created a separate "mop-tops" list in 1964 when the Beatles held the top five places in its list, and Nielsen should have created a separate game-show list when Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? dominated the ratings.[160] Legacy Influence on literature Sculpture of Harry Potter in Leicester Square, London, 2020 Sculpture of Harry Potter in Leicester Square, London, 2020 Harry Potter transformed children's literature.[161][162] In the 1970s, children's books were generally realistic as opposed to fantastic,[163] while adult fantasy became popular because of the influence of The Lord of the Rings.[164] The next decade saw an increasing interest in grim, realist themes, with an outflow of fantasy readers and writers to adult works.[165][166] The commercial success of Harry Potter in 1997 reversed this trend.[167] The scale of its growth had no precedent in the children's market: within four years, it occupied 28% of that field by revenue.[168] Children's literature rose in cultural status,[169] and fantasy became a dominant genre.[170] Older works in the genre, including Diana Wynne Jones's Chrestomanci series and Diane Duane's Young Wizards, were reprinted and rose in popularity; some authors re-established their careers.[171] In the following decades, many Harry Potter imitators and subversive responses grew popular.[172][173] Rowling has been compared to Enid Blyton, who also wrote in simple language about groups of children and long held sway over the British children's market.[174][175] She has also been described as an heir to Roald Dahl.[176] Some critics view Harry Potter's rise, along with the concurrent success of Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials, as part of a broader shift in reading tastes: a rejection of literary fiction in favour of plot and adventure.[177] This is reflected in the BBC's 2003 "Big Read" survey of the UK's favourite books, where Pullman and Rowling ranked at numbers 3 and 5, respectively, with very few British literary classics in the top 10.[178] Cultural impact Further information: Harry Potter fandom "Platform 9+3⁄4" sign on London King's Cross railway station Harry Potter has been described as a cultural phenomenon.[179][180] The word "Muggle" has spread beyond its origins in the books, entering the Oxford English Dictionary in 2003.[181] A real-life version of the sport Quidditch was created in 2005 and featured as an exhibition tournament in the 2012 London Olympics.[182] Characters and elements from the series have inspired scientific names of several organisms, including the dinosaur Dracorex hogwartsia, the spider Eriovixia gryffindori, the wasp Ampulex dementor, and the crab Harryplax severus.[183] Librarian Nancy Knapp pointed out the books' potential to improve literacy by motivating children to read much more than they otherwise would.[184] The seven-book series has a word count of 1,083,594 (US edition). Agreeing about the motivating effects, Diane Penrod also praised the books' blending of simple entertainment with "the qualities of highbrow literary fiction", but expressed concern about the distracting effect of the prolific merchandising that accompanies the book launches.[185] However, the assumption that Harry Potter books have increased literacy among young people is "largely a folk legend".[186] Research by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) has found no increase in reading among children coinciding with the Harry Potter publishing phenomenon, nor has the broader downward trend in reading among Americans been arrested during the rise in the popularity of the Harry Potter books.[186][187] The research also found that children who read Harry Potter books were not more likely to go on to read outside the fantasy and mystery genres.[186] NEA chairman Dana Gioia said the series, "got millions of kids to read a long and reasonably complex series of books. The trouble is that one Harry Potter novel every few years is not enough to reverse the decline in reading."[188] Many fan fiction and fan art works about Harry Potter have been made. In March 2007, "Harry Potter" was the most commonly searched fan fiction subject on the internet.[189] Jennifer Conn used Snape's and Quidditch coach Madam Hooch's teaching methods as examples of what to avoid and what to emulate in clinical teaching,[190] and Joyce Fields wrote that the books illustrate four of the five main topics in a typical first-year sociology class: "sociological concepts including culture, society, and socialisation; stratification and social inequality; social institutions; and social theory".[191] From the early 2000s onwards several news reports appeared in the UK of the Harry Potter book and movie series driving demand for pet owls[192] and even reports that after the end of the movie series these same pet owls were now being abandoned by their owners.[193] This led J. K. Rowling to issue several statements urging Harry Potter fans to refrain from purchasing pet owls.[194] Despite the media flurry, research into the popularity of Harry Potter and sales of owls in the UK failed to find any evidence that the Harry Potter franchise had influenced the buying of owls in the country or the number of owls reaching animal shelters and sanctuaries.[195] Awards, honours, and recognition Further information: List of awards and nominations received by J. K. Rowling The Harry Potter series has been recognised by a host of awards since the initial publication of Philosopher's Stone including a platinum award from the Whitaker Gold and Platinum Book Awards ( 2001),[196][197] three Nestlé Smarties Book Prizes (1997–1999),[198] two Scottish Arts Council Book Awards (1999 and 2001),[199] the inaugural Whitbread children's book of the year award (1999),[200] the WHSmith book of the year (2006),[201] among others. In 2000, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was nominated for a Hugo Award for Best Novel, and in 2001, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire won said award.[202] Honours include a commendation for the Carnegie Medal (1997),[203] a short listing for the Guardian Children's Award (1998), and numerous listings on the notable books, editors' Choices, and best books lists of the American Library Association, The New York Times, Chicago Public Library, and Publishers Weekly.[204] In 2002, sociologist Andrew Blake named Harry Potter a British pop culture icon along with the likes of James Bond and Sherlock Holmes.[205] In 2003, four of the books were named in the top 24 of the BBC's The Big Read survey of the best loved novels in the UK.[206] A 2004 study found that books in the series were commonly read aloud in elementary schools in San Diego County, California.[207] Based on a 2007 online poll, the U.S. National Education Association listed the series in its "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children".[208] Time magazine named Rowling as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year award, noting the social, moral, and political inspiration she has given her fandom.[209] Three of the books placed among the "Top 100 Chapter Books" of all time, or children's novels, in a 2012 survey published by School Library Journal: Sorcerer's Stone ranked number three, Prisoner of Azkaban 12th, and Goblet of Fire 98th.[210] In 2012, the opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London featured a 100-foot tall rendition of Lord Voldemort in a segment designed to show off the UK's cultural icons.[211] In November 2019, the BBC listed the Harry Potter series on its list of the 100 most influential novels.[212] Adaptations Films Main article: Harry Potter (film series) The red locomotive train used as the "Hogwarts Express" in the film series. In the front it has the numbers "5912" inscripted on it The locomotive that features as the "Hogwarts Express" in the film series In 1999, Rowling sold the film rights for Harry Potter to Warner Bros. for a reported $1 million.[213][214] Rowling had creative control on the film series, observing the filmmaking process of Philosopher's Stone and serving as producer on the two-part Deathly Hallows, alongside David Heyman and David Barron.[215] Rowling demanded the principal cast be kept strictly British, nonetheless allowing for the inclusion of Irish or French and Eastern European actors where characters from the book are specified as such.[216] Chris Columbus was selected as the director for Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (titled "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" in the United States).[217] Philosopher's Stone was released on 14 November 2001. Just three days after the film's release, production for Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, also directed by Columbus, began and the film was released on 15 November 2002.[218] Columbus declined to direct Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, only acting as producer. Mexican director Alfonso Cuarón took over the job, and after shooting in 2003, the film was released on 4 June 2004. Due to the fourth film beginning its production before the third's release, Mike Newell was chosen as the director for Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, released on 18 November 2005.[219] Newell became the first British director of the series, with television director David Yates following suit after he was chosen to helm Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. Production began in January 2006 and the film was released the following year in July 2007.[220] Yates was selected to direct Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, which was released on 15 July 2009.[221][222] The final instalment in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was released in two cinematic parts: Part 1 on 19 November 2010 and Part 2 on 15 July 2011.[223][224] Spin-off prequels Main article: Fantastic Beasts (film series) A new prequel series consisting of five films will take place before the main series.[225] The first film Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them was released in November 2016, followed by the second Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald in November 2018 and Fantastic Beasts: The Secrets of Dumbledore in April 2022 with two more to be released. Rowling wrote the screenplay for the first three instalments,[226] marking her foray into screenwriting. Games Main article: Harry Potter video games A number of non-interactive media games and board games have been released such as Cluedo Harry Potter Edition, Scene It? Harry Potter and Lego Harry Potter models, which are influenced by the themes of both the novels and films. There are thirteen Harry Potter video games, eight corresponding with the films and books and five spin-offs. The film/book-based games are produced by Electronic Arts (EA), as was Harry Potter: Quidditch World Cup, with the game version of the first entry in the series, Philosopher's Stone, being released in November 2001. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone went on to become one of the best-selling PlayStation games ever.[227] The video games were released to coincide with the films. Objectives usually occur in and around Hogwarts. The story and design of the games follow the selected film's characterisation and plot; EA worked closely with Warner Bros. to include scenes from the films. The last game in the series, Deathly Hallows, was split, with Part 1 released in November 2010 and Part 2 debuting on consoles in July 2011.[228][229] The spin-off games Lego Harry Potter: Years 1–4 and Lego Harry Potter: Years 5–7 were developed by Traveller's Tales and published by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment. The spin-off games Book of Spells and Book of Potions were developed by London Studio and use the Wonderbook, an augmented reality book designed to be used in conjunction with the PlayStation Move and PlayStation Eye.[230] The Harry Potter universe is also featured in Lego Dimensions, with the settings and side characters featured in the Harry Potter Adventure World, and Harry, Voldemort, and Hermione as playable characters. In 2017, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment opened its own Harry Potter-themed game design studio, by the name of Portkey Games, before releasing Hogwarts Mystery in 2018, developed by Jam City.[231] Stage production Main article: Harry Potter and the Cursed Child Harry Potter and the Cursed Child: Parts I and II is a play which serves as a sequel to the books, beginning nineteen years after the events of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. It was written by Jack Thorne based on an original new story by Thorne, Rowling and John Tiffany.[232] It has run at the Palace Theatre in London's West End since previews began on 7 June 2016 with an official premiere on 30 June 2016.[233] The first four months of tickets for the June–September performances were sold out within several hours upon release.[234] Forthcoming productions are planned for Broadway[235] and Melbourne.[236] The script was released as a book at the time of the premiere, with a revised version following the next year. Television On 25 January 2021, a live action television series was reported to have been in early development at HBO Max. Though it was noted that the series has "complicated rights issues", due to a seven-year rights deal with Warner Bros. Domestic TV Distribution that included U.S. broadcast, cable and streaming rights to the franchise, which ends in April 2025.[237] Attractions Main articles: The Wizarding World of Harry Potter and Warner Bros. Studio Tour London – The Making of Harry Potter Hogwarts Castle as depicted in the Wizarding World of Harry Potter, located in Universal Orlando Resort's Island of Adventure Universal and Warner Brothers created The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, a Harry Potter-themed expansion to the Islands of Adventure theme park at Universal Orlando Resort in Florida. It opened to the public on 18 June 2010.[238] It includes a re-creation of Hogsmeade and several rides; its flagship attraction is Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey, which exists within a re-creation of Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.[239] In 2014 Universal opened a Harry Potter-themed area at the Universal Studios Florida theme park. It includes a re-creation of Diagon Alley.[240] The flagship attraction is the Harry Potter and the Escape from Gringotts roller coaster ride.[241] A completely functioning full-scale replica of the Hogwarts Express was created for the Diagon Alley expansion, connecting King's Cross Station at Universal Studios to the Hogsmeade station at Islands of Adventure.[242][243] The Wizarding World of Harry Potter opened at the Universal Studios Hollywood theme park near Los Angeles, California in 2016,[244][245] and in Universal Studios Japan theme park in Osaka, Japan in 2014. The Osaka venue includes the village of Hogsmeade, Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey ride, and Flight of the Hippogriff roller coaster.[246][247] The Making of Harry Potter is a behind-the-scenes walking tour in London featuring authentic sets, costumes and props from the film series. The attraction is located at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden, where all eight of the Harry Potter films were made. Warner Bros. constructed two new sound stages to house and showcase the sets from each of the British-made productions, following a £100 million investment.[248] It opened to the public in March 2012.[249] Supplementary works See also: J. K. Rowling § Philanthropy Rowling expanded the Harry Potter universe with short books produced for charities.[250][251] In 2001, she released Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (a purported Hogwarts textbook) and Quidditch Through the Ages (a book Harry reads for fun). Proceeds from the sale of these two books benefited the charity Comic Relief.[252] In 2007, Rowling composed seven handwritten copies of The Tales of Beedle the Bard, a collection of fairy tales that is featured in the final novel, one of which was auctioned to raise money for the Children's High Level Group, a fund for mentally disabled children in poor countries. The book was published internationally on 4 December 2008.[253][254] Rowling also wrote an 800-word prequel in 2008 as part of a fundraiser organised by the bookseller Waterstones.[255] All three of these books contain extra information about the wizarding world not included in the original novels. In 2016, she released three new e-books: Hogwarts: An Incomplete and Unreliable Guide, Short Stories from Hogwarts of Power, Politics and Pesky Poltergeists and Short Stories from Hogwarts of Heroism, Hardship and Dangerous Hobbies.[256] Rowling's website Pottermore was launched in 2012.[257] Pottermore allows users to be sorted, be chosen by their wand and play various minigames. The main purpose of the website was to allow the user to journey through the story with access to content not revealed by JK Rowling previously, with over 18,000 words of additional content.[258] The site was redesigned in 2015 as Wizardingworld.com and it mainly focuses on the information already available, rather than exploration.[259][verification needed] See also The Worst Witch Mary Poppins References "In uscita l'ottavo Harry Potter, Grafica Veneta è ancora la tipografia di fiducia del maghetto". Padova Oggi (in Italian). 22 September 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2021. Sources that refer to the many genres, cultural meanings and references of the series include: Fry, Stephen (10 December 2005). "Living with Harry Potter". BBC Radio 4. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2005. Jensen, Jeff (7 September 2000). "Why J.K. Rowling waited to read Harry Potter to her daughter". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015. Nancy Carpentier Brown (2007). "The Last Chapter" (PDF). Our Sunday Visitor. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2009. J. K. Rowling. "J. K. Rowling at the Edinburgh Book Festival". Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2006. Greig, Geordie (11 January 2006). "There would be so much to tell her..." The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2007. Mzimba, Lizo (28 July 2008). "Interview with Steve Kloves and J.K. Rowling". Quick Quotes Quill. 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"JK Rowling book fetches £2 m". BBC News. 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "The Tales of Beedle the Bard". . Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2007. Williams, Rachel (29 May 2008). "Rowling pens Potter prequel for charities". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2010. Chan, Melissa. "J.K. Rowling Is About to Release 3 New 'Harry Potter' Books". Time. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016. "Waiting for Pottermore?". Pottermore Insider. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2012. Gilder Cooke, Sonia van (23 June 2011). "'Pottermore' Secrets Revealed: J.K. Rowling's New Site is E-Book Meets Interactive World". Time. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. "Pottermore". Pottermore. Pottermore. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015. Sources Anatol, Giselle Liza, ed. (2003). Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-32067-5. OCLC 50774592. Carey, Brycchan (2003). "Hermione and the house-elves: the literary and historical contexts of J. K. Rowling's antislavery campaign". In Anatol, Giselle Liza (ed.). Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays. Praeger. ISBN 9780313320675. Gallardo, Ximena; Smith, C. Jason (2003). "Cinderfella: J. K. Rowling's wily web of gender". In Anatol, Giselle Liza (ed.). Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays. Praeger. ISBN 9780313320675. Ostry, Elaine (2003). "Accepting Mudbloods: the ambivalent social vision of J. K. Rowling's fairy tales". In Anatol, Giselle Liza (ed.). Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays. Praeger. ISBN 9780313320675. Park, Julia (2003). "Class and socioeconomic identity in Harry Potter's England". In Anatol, Giselle Liza (ed.). Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays. Praeger. ISBN 9780313320675. Shanoes, Veronica (2003). "Cruel heroes and treacherous texts: educating the reader in moral complexity and critical reading in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter books". In Anatol, Giselle Liza (ed.). Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays. Praeger. ISBN 9780313320675. Barratt, Bethany (2012). The Politics of Harry Potter. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9781137016546. ISBN 978-0-230-60899-3. Bell, Christopher, ed. (2012). Hermione Granger Saves the World: Essays on the Feminist Heroine of Hogwarts. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-7137-9. Bell, Christopher; Alexander, Julie (2012). "Introduction". In Bell, Christopher (ed.). Hermione Granger Saves the World: Essays on the Feminist Heroine of Hogwarts. McFarland & Company. Berents, Helen (2012). "Hermione Granger goes to war". In Bell, Christopher (ed.). Hermione Granger Saves the World: Essays on the Feminist Heroine of Hogwarts. McFarland & Company. Berndt, Katrin; Steveker, Lena, eds. (22 April 2016). Heroism in the Harry Potter Series. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315586748. ISBN 978-1-317-12211-1. Berberich, Christine (22 April 2016). "Harry Potter and the idea of the gentleman as hero". In Berndt, Katrin; Steveker, Lena (eds.). Heroism in the Harry Potter Series. Routledge. McEvoy, Kathleen (22 April 2016). "Heroism at the margins". In Berndt, Katrin; Steveker, Lena (eds.). Heroism in the Harry Potter Series. Routledge. Nikolajeva, Maria (22 April 2016). "Adult heroism and role models in the Harry Potter novels". In Berndt, Katrin; Steveker, Lena (eds.). Heroism in the Harry Potter Series. Routledge. Pharr, Mary (22 April 2016). "A paradox: the Harry Potter series as both epic and postmodern". In Berndt, Katrin; Steveker, Lena (eds.). Heroism in the Harry Potter Series. Routledge. Singer, Rita (22 April 2016). "Harry Potter and the battle for the soul: the revival of the psychomachia in secular fiction". In Berndt, Katrin; Steveker, Lena (eds.). Heroism in the Harry Potter Series. Routledge. Blake, Andrew (2002). The Irresistible Rise of Harry Potter. London: Verso Books. ISBN 1-85984-666-1. OCLC 49594480. Butler, Catherine (2012). "Modern children's fantasy". In James, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to Fantasy Literature. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CCOL9780521429597. ISBN 978-0-521-42959-7. Clark, Giles; Phillips, Angus (2019). Inside Book Publishing. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-26571-3. Eberhardt, Maeve (2017). "Gendered representations through speech: The case of the Harry Potter series". Language and Literature. 26 (3): 227–246. doi:10.1177/0963947017701851. S2CID 149129001. Eccleshare, Julia (2002). A Guide to the Harry Potter Novels. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-1-84714-418-8. OCLC 229341237. Errington, Philip W. (2017). J.K. Rowling: A Bibliography. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4742-9737-0. Farmer, Joy (2001). "The magician's niece: the kinship between J. K. Rowling and C. S. Lewis". Mythlore. 23 (2): 53–64. ISSN 0146-9339. JSTOR 26814627. Groves, Beatrice (2017). Literary Allusion in Harry Potter. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315269337. ISBN 978-1-315-26933-7. Gunelius, Susan (2008). Harry Potter: The Story of a Global Business Phenomenon. Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9780230594104. ISBN 978-0-230-59410-4. Gupta, Suman (2009). Re-Reading Harry Potter (2nd ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9780230279711. ISBN 978-0-230-21958-8. Heilman, Elizabeth E., ed. (7 August 2008). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter (2nd ed.). Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203892817. ISBN 978-1-135-89154-1. Alton, Anne Hiebert (7 August 2008). "Playing the genre game: generic fusions of the Harry Potter series". In Heilman, Elizabeth E. (ed.). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter (2nd ed.). Routledge. Applebaum, Peter (7 August 2008). "The great Snape debate". In Heilman, Elizabeth E. (ed.). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter (2nd ed.). Routledge. Birch, Megan L. (7 August 2008). "Schooling Harry Potter: teachers and learning, power and knowledge". In Heilman, Elizabeth E. (ed.). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter (2nd ed.). Routledge. Ciaccio, Peter (7 August 2008). "Harry Potter and Christian theology". In Heilman, Elizabeth E. (ed.). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter (2nd ed.). Routledge. Heilman, Elizabeth E.; Donaldson, Trevor (7 August 2008). "From sexist to (sort-of) feminist representations of gender in the Harry Potter series". In Heilman, Elizabeth E. (ed.). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter (2nd ed.). Routledge. Nikolajeva, Maria (7 August 2008). "Harry Potter and the secrets of children's literature". In Heilman, Elizabeth E. (ed.). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter (2nd ed.). Routledge. Taub, Deborah J.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L. (7 August 2008). "Controversial content: is Harry Potter harmful to children?". In Heilman, Elizabeth E. (ed.). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter (2nd ed.). Routledge. Horne, Jackie C. (2010). "Harry and the other: answering the race question in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter". The Lion and the Unicorn. 34 (1): 76–104. doi:10.1353/uni.0.0488. S2CID 143738308. ProQuest 221753179. Kirk, Connie Ann (2003). J.K. Rowling: A Biography. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32205-8. OCLC 49991592. Levy, Michael; Mendlesohn, Farah (2016). Children's Fantasy Literature: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139087421. ISBN 978-1-107-01814-3. Los, Fraser (2008). "Harry Potter and the nature of death". Alternatives Journal. 34 (1): 32–33. JSTOR 45033580. Mendlesohn, Farah; James, Edward (2012). A Short History of Fantasy. Libri Publishing. ISBN 978-1-907471-66-7. OCLC 857653620. Nel, Philip (2001). J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter Novels: A Reader's Guide. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-5232-9. OCLC 47050453. Popple, Jennifer E. (2015). "Embracing the magic: Muggle Quidditch and the transformation of gender equality from fantasy to reality". In Brenner, Lisa S. (ed.). Playing Harry Potter: Essays and Interviews on Fandom and Performance. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-1-4766-2136-4. Pugh, Tison; Wallace, David L. (Fall 2006). "Heteronormative heroism and queering the school story in J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series". Children's Literature Association Quarterly. 31 (3): 260–281. doi:10.1353/chq.2006.0053. Smith, Sean (2002). J.K. Rowling: A Biography. Arrow Books. ISBN 0-09-944542-5. OCLC 51303518. Stableford, Brian M. (2009). The A to Z of Fantasy Literature. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6345-3. OCLC 1200815959. Striphas, Theodore G. (2009). "Harry Potter and the Culture of the Copy". The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 141–174. ISBN 978-0-231-14814-6. OCLC 256532755. Stojilkov, Andrea (2015). "Life(and)death in 'Harry Potter': the immortality of love and soul". Mosaic: An Interdisciplinary Critical Journal. 48 (2): 133–148. ISSN 0027-1276. JSTOR 44030425. Whited, Lana A., ed. (2002). The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-6330-8. OCLC 56424948. Doughty, Terri (2002). "Locating Harry Potter in the 'Boys' Book' market". In Whited, Lana A. (ed.). The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 9780826214430. Mendlesohn, Farah (2002). "Crowning the king: Harry Potter and the construction of authority". In Whited, Lana A. (ed.). The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 9780826214430. Natov, Roni (2002). "Harry Potter and the extraordinariness of the ordinary". In Whited, Lana A. (ed.). The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 9780826214430. Whited, Lana A. (2015). "A survey of the critical reception of the Harry Potter series". In Grimes, M. Katherine; Whited, Lana A. (eds.). Critical Insights: The Harry Potter Series. Salem Press. ISBN 978-1-61925-520-3. EBSCOhost 108515151. Further reading Agarwal, Nikita; Chitra Agarwal (2005). Friends and Foes of Harry Potter: Names Decoded. Outskirts Press. ISBN 978-1-59800-221-8. Burkart, Gina (2005). A parent's guide to Harry Potter. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-3288-0. Harry Potter. Duriez, Colin (2007). Field Guide to Harry Potter. IVP Books. ISBN 978-0-8308-3430-3. Mulholland, Neil (2007). The psychology of Harry Potter: an unauthorized examination of the boy who lived. BenBella Books. ISBN 978-1-932100-88-4. Silvester, William (2010). Harry Potter Collector's Handbook. Krause. ISBN 978-1-4402-0897-3. External links Listen to this article (3 minutes) 2:41 Spoken Wikipedia icon This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 2 January 2011, and does not reflect subsequent edits. (Audio help · More spoken articles) Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Harry Potter tourism. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harry Potter books. Harry Potter, an external wiki J. K. Rowling's personal website Harry Potter movies – Official website (Warner Bros.) Harry Potter at Bloomsbury.com (International publisher) Harry Potter at Scholastic.com (US publisher) Harry Potter at Raincoast.com (Canadian publisher) Works by or about Harry Potter in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Harry Potter collected news and commentary at The Guardian Edit this at Wikidata Harry Potter collected news and commentary at The New York Times The Wizarding World of Harry Potter at Orlando resort, Florida vte Harry Potter by J. K. Rowling Wizarding World Books Main novels The Philosopher's StoneThe Chamber of SecretsThe Prisoner of AzkabanThe Goblet of FireThe Order of the PhoenixThe Half-Blood PrinceThe Deathly Hallows Spin-offs Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find ThemQuidditch Through the AgesThe Tales of Beedle the Bard Short stories PrequelHogwarts: An Incomplete and Unreliable GuideShort Stories from Hogwarts of Power, Politics and Pesky PoltergeistsShort Stories from Hogwarts of Heroism, Hardship and Dangerous Hobbies Feature films Harry Potter (cast · music) The Philosopher's Stone soundtrackThe Chamber of Secrets soundtrackThe Prisoner of Azkaban soundtrackThe Goblet of Fire soundtrackThe Order of the Phoenix soundtrackThe Half-Blood Prince soundtrackThe Deathly Hallows – Part 1 productionsoundtrackThe Deathly Hallows – Part 2 productionsoundtrack Fantastic Beasts (cast · characters) Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them soundtrackThe Crimes of Grindelwald soundtrackThe Secrets of Dumbledore Characters Harry PotterRon WeasleyHermione GrangerLord VoldemortAlbus DumbledoreSeverus SnapeGinny WeasleyDraco MalfoyNeville LongbottomLuna LovegoodMinerva McGonagallRubeus HagridFred and George WeasleySirius BlackRemus LupinBellatrix LestrangeCedric DiggoryDolores Umbridge Groups Hogwarts staffOrder of the PhoenixDumbledore's ArmyDeath Eaters Other Supporting charactersFamily tree Fictional universe Magic creaturesobjectsMinistry of MagicMugglePlaces HogwartsQuidditch Other works PottermoreThe Cursed Child20th Anniversary: Return to Hogwarts Inspired media Video games Lego Creator: Harry PotterThe Philosopher's StoneThe Chamber of SecretsLego Creator: Harry Potter and the Chamber of SecretsQuidditch World CupThe Prisoner of AzkabanThe Goblet of FireThe Order of the PhoenixThe Half-Blood PrinceLego Harry Potter: Years 1–4The Deathly Hallows – Part 1The Deathly Hallows – Part 2Lego Harry Potter: Years 5–7Book of SpellsBook of PotionsLego DimensionsFantastic Beasts: Cases From the Wizarding WorldHogwarts MysteryWizards UniteHogwarts Legacy Attractions The Wizarding World of Harry Potter OrlandoJapanHollywoodDragon ChallengeFlight of the HippogriffHagrid's Magical Creatures Motorbike AdventureThe Escape from GringottsThe Forbidden JourneyHogwarts ExpressMovie Magic Experience Exhibitions The ExhibitionA History of MagicWarner Bros. 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Rowling Wizarding World Harry Potter The Philosopher's Stone (1997)The Chamber of Secrets (1998)The Prisoner of Azkaban (1999)The Goblet of Fire (2000)The Order of the Phoenix (2003)The Half-Blood Prince (2005)The Deathly Hallows (2007) Fantastic Beasts Where to Find Them (Hogwarts textbook) (2001)Where to Find Them (screenplay) (2016)The Crimes of Grindelwald (2018) Other Quidditch Through the Ages (2001)Prequel (2008)The Tales of Beedle the Bard (2008)The Cursed Child (2016)Hogwarts: An Incomplete and Unreliable Guide (2016)Short Stories from Hogwarts of Power, Politics and Pesky Poltergeists (2016)Short Stories from Hogwarts of Heroism, Hardship and Dangerous Hobbies (2016) Cormoran Strike The Cuckoo's Calling (2013)The Silkworm (2014)Career of Evil (2015)Lethal White (2018)Troubled Blood (2020) Other works The Casual Vacancy (2012)The Ickabog (2020)The Christmas Pig (2021) Films Productions The Deathly Hallows – Part 1 (2010)The Deathly Hallows – Part 2 (2011) Screenplay Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (2016)Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald (2018)Fantastic Beasts: The Secrets of Dumbledore (2022) TV series The Casual Vacancy (2015)Strike (2017–present) vte Books I Love Best Yearly: Younger Readers Award Matilda by Roald Dahl (1990)The BFG by Roald Dahl (1991)Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl (1992)Blabber Mouth by Morris Gleitzman (1993)Fantastic Mr Fox by Roald Dahl (1994)The Pagemaster by David Kirschner (1995)When the Wind Changed by Ruth Park (1996)Matilda by Roald Dahl (1997)Polar the Titanic Bear by Daisy Corning Stone Spedder (1998)Detective Donut and the Wild Goose Chase by Bruce Whatley and R. Smith (1999)Just Stupid! by Andy Griffiths (2000)Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling (2001)Just Crazy! by Andy Griffiths (2002)The Saddle Club series by Bonnie Bryant (2003)Just Disgusting! by Andy Griffiths (2004)The Bad Book by Andy Griffiths (2005)Just Crazy! by Andy Griffiths (2006) vte Books I Love Best Yearly: Older Readers Award The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole, Aged 13¾ by Sue Townsend (1990)The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton (1991)Where's Wally? by Martin Handford (1992)Flowers in the Attic by V. C. Andrews (1993)Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta (1995)Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton (1996)The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien (1997)Tomorrow, When the War Began by John Marsden (1998)Bumface by Morris Gleitzman (1999)Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta (2000)Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling (2001)The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien (2002)Two of a Kind series by various authors (2003)Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix by J. K. Rowling (2004)Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban by J. K. Rowling (2005)Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince by J. K. Rowling (2006)Eragon by Christopher Paolini (2007)Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows by J. K. Rowling (2008)Twilight by Stephenie Meyer (2009)New Moon by Stephenie Meyer (2010)The Lightning Thief by Rick Riordan (2011)The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins (2012)The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien (2013)Catching Fire by Suzanne Collins (2014)The Maze Runner by James Dashner (2015)Mockingjay by Suzanne Collins (2016) Portals: Children's literature icon Speculative fiction Literature icon 1990s 2000s Harry Potter at Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata Authority control Edit this at Wikidata National libraries France (data)GermanyIsrael Other SUDOC (France) 1 Categories: Harry PotterBILBY Award-winning worksBook series introduced in 1997British novels adapted into filmsBritish bildungsromansFiction about cursesFantasy novel seriesNovels adapted into video gamesProsthetics in fictionBoarding school fictionSchools in fictionWitchcraft in written fictionContemporary fantasy novels20th-century British children's literature21st-century British children's literatureDragons in popular cultureElves in popular cultureFiction about giantsGhosts in popular cultureFiction about invisibilityBooks about magicNovels by J. K. RowlingFiction about secret societiesWizards in fictionBook franchisesWizarding WorldHeptalogies Hermione Granger Harry Potter character Hermione Granger poster.jpg Emma Watson as Hermione Granger in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix First appearance Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997) Last appearance Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (2007) Created by J. K. Rowling Portrayed by Emma Watson Voiced by Harper Marshall (video games; 1–4)[1] Rachel Sternberg (video games; 6)[1] Guy Harris (Lego Harry Potter: Years 1-4) Alice Keenan (video games; 7 Part 1 and Part 2)[1] Jessie Braviner (Harry Potter for Kinect)[1] Erica Luttrell (Harry Potter: Wizards Unite)[1] In-universe information Full name Hermione Jean Granger Spouse Ron Weasley Children Rose Granger-Weasley Hugo Granger-Weasley Nationality British House Gryffindor Born 19 September 1979 Signature Hermionesignature.png Hermione Jean Granger (/hɜːrˈmaɪəni ˈɡreɪndʒər/ hur-MY-ə-nee GRAYN-jər) is a fictional character in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series. She first appears in the novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997), as a new student on her way to Hogwarts. After Harry and Ron save her from a mountain troll in the girls' restroom, she becomes best friends with them and often uses her quick wit, deft recall, and encyclopaedic knowledge to lend aid in dire situations. Rowling has stated that Hermione resembles herself as a young girl, with her insecurity and fear of failure.[2] The character has had immense popularity. The version of Hermione portrayed by Emma Watson in all eight Harry Potter films from Philosopher's Stone in 2001 to Deathly Hallows – Part 2 in 2011 was voted the best female character of all time in a poll conducted amongst Hollywood professionals by The Hollywood Reporter in 2016.[3] Character development Hermione is a Muggle-born Gryffindor,[4] who becomes best friends with Harry Potter and Ron Weasley. Rowling states that she was born on 19 September 1979[2] and she was nearly twelve when she first attended Hogwarts.[5] She is an overachiever who excels academically and is described by Rowling as a "very logical, upright and good" character.[6] Rowling adds that Hermione's parents, two Muggle dentists, are a bit bemused by their odd daughter but "quite proud of her all the same".[6] They are well aware of the wizard world and have visited Diagon Alley with her.[7] Hermione is an only child.[6] But Rowling revealed in a 2004 interview that Hermione was originally intended to have a sister, but the planned sibling did not appear since she felt it "might be too late now" to introduce the character.[8] Rowling has called the character of Luna Lovegood the "anti-Hermione" as they are so very different.[9] Rowling said the character of Hermione has several autobiographic influences: "I did not set out to make Hermione like me but she is a bit like me. She is an exaggeration of how I was when I was younger."[6] She recalled being called a "little know-it-all" in her youth.[2] And she says that not unlike herself, "there is a lot of insecurity and a great fear of failure" beneath Hermione's swottiness. Finally, according to Rowling, next to Albus Dumbledore, Hermione is the perfect expository character; because of her encyclopedic knowledge, she can always be used as a plot dump to explain the Harry Potter universe.[10] Rowling also states that her feminist conscience is rescued by Hermione, "who's the brightest witch of her age" and a "very strong female character."[11] Hermione's first name is taken from a character in William Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, though Rowling has said that the two characters have little to nothing in common.[12] Rowling said that she wanted her name to be unusual since if fewer girls had the name, fewer girls would get teased for it and it seemed that "a pair of professional dentists, who liked to prove how clever they were".[12] Her original surname was "Puckle", but Rowling felt the name "did not suit her at all", and so the less frivolous Granger was used.[2] Harry Potter books Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone Hermione first appears in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone when she meets Harry and Ron on the Hogwarts Express, where she mocks Ron for his inability to perform a spell to turn his rat yellow. She proves just how much she knows by declaring that she memorized all the textbooks by heart. She constantly annoys her peers with her knowledge, so Harry and Ron initially consider her arrogant, especially after she criticises Ron's incantation of the Levitation Charm.[13] They heartily dislike her until they rescue her from a troll, for which she is so thankful that she lies to protect them from punishment, thus winning their friendship.[14] Hermione's knack for logic later enables the trio to solve a puzzle that is essential to retrieving the Philosopher's Stone, and she defeats the constrictive Devil's Snare plant by summoning a jet of "bluebell flame".[15][a] Hermione is the brains behind the plan to enter the place where the Stone is hidden. She responds to Harry's wariness of Professor Severus Snape and is also suspicious of him. She reveals to Harry and Ron that she does a lot of research in the library, which helped her defeat the Devil's Snare and work out the logic of the potions. Rowling said on her website that she resisted her editor's requests to remove the troll scene, stating "Hermione is so very arrogant and annoying in the early part of Philosopher's Stone that I really felt it needed something (literally) huge to bring her together with Harry and Ron."[2] Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Hermione (along with Ron's mother Molly Weasley and a few female students of Hogwarts) develops a liking for Defence Against the Dark Arts (DADA) teacher Gilderoy Lockhart as he had written all the books required for the DADA in Chamber of Secrets.[16] During a morning confrontation between the Gryffindor and Slytherin Quidditch teams, a brawl nearly ensues after Draco Malfoy calls her a "Mudblood", an insulting epithet for Muggle-born wizards when she defends the Gryffindor Quidditch team. She concocts the Polyjuice Potion needed for the trio to disguise themselves as Draco's housemates to collect information about the Heir of Slytherin who has reopened the Chamber of Secrets. However, she is unable to join Harry and Ron in the investigation after the hair plucked from the robes of Slytherin student Millicent Bulstrode (with whom Hermione was previously matched up during Lockhart's ill-fated Duelling Club) was that of her cat, whose appearance she takes on in her human form; it takes several weeks for the effects to completely wear off. Hermione is Petrified by the basilisk after successfully identifying the creature through library research. Though she lies incapacitated in the hospital wing, the information she has found and left behind is crucial to Harry and Ron in their successful mission to solve the mystery of the Chamber of Secrets. Hermione is revived after Harry kills the basilisk, but she is distraught to learn that all end-of-year exams have been cancelled as a school treat.[17] Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Hermione buys a cat named Crookshanks, who takes to chasing Ron's pet rat, Scabbers.[18] Before the start of term, Professor Minerva McGonagall secretly gives Hermione a Time-Turner, a device which lets her go back in time and handle her heavy class schedule, though this is not revealed until the penultimate chapter. Much tension comes into play between Hermione and her two best friends; Harry is furious with her because she told McGonagall that he got a Firebolt, which was confiscated to be inspected for traces of dark magic. Ron is angry because he feels Crookshanks caused Scabbers' disappearance, while Hermione fiercely maintains that Crookshanks is innocent. While filling in for Remus Lupin in one DADA class, Snape labels Hermione "an insufferable know-it-all" and penalises Gryffindor after she speaks out of turn in her attempt to describe a werewolf when no one else does. She correctly deduces Lupin's secret after completing Snape's homework assignment from the class. Crookshanks proves vital in exposing Scabbers as Peter Pettigrew, an erstwhile friend of James and Lily Potter, who revealed their whereabouts to Voldemort the night of their murders, and was able to wrongly implicate Sirius Black (revealed to be Harry's godfather) in the Potters' deaths.[19][20] The Time-Turner enables Hermione and Harry to rescue Sirius and the hippogriff Buckbeak.[19][20] Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Hermione is horrified by the cruelty that house-elves suffer, and establishes S.P.E.W., the Society for the Promotion of Elfish Welfare, as an effort to gain basic rights for them. She is Bulgarian Quidditch prodigy Viktor Krum's date at the Yule Ball of the Triwizard Tournament.[21] The proper pronunciation of her name (Her-my-oh-nee) is interjected into the plot when she teaches it to Krum; the best he can do is "Herm-own-ninny," but she has no problem with it.[2] She later gets into a heated argument with Ron after he accuses her of "fraternising with the enemy" about her friendship with Krum. In the book, Hermione's feelings toward Ron are hinted at when she says that Ron can't see her "like a girl," but Krum could. She supports Harry through the Triwizard Tournament, helping him prepare for each task. At the end of the second task, Krum asks her to come to see him over the summer in Bulgaria, but she politely declines. Near the end of term, she stops fraudulent tabloid reporter and unregistered Animagus, Rita Skeeter, who had published defamatory material about Hermione, Harry, and Hagrid during the Triwizard Tournament, by holding her Animagus form (a beetle) captive in a jar.[22] Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Hermione becomes a Gryffindor prefect along with Ron and befriends Luna Lovegood, but their friendship has a rocky start after Hermione chastises the publication of Luna's father: "The Quibbler's rubbish, everyone knows that." She also lambasts housemate Lavender Brown for believing the Daily Prophet's allegations of Harry fabricating stories of Voldemort's return. Ron and Hermione spend much of their time bickering, likely due to their growing romantic feelings toward one another, but they show continued loyalty to Harry. One turning point in the series is when Hermione conceives the idea of Harry secretly teaching defensive magic to a small band of students in defiance of the Ministry of Magic's dictum to teach only the subject's basic principles from a textbook, with no hands-on practice. Hermione gets an unexpectedly huge response, and the group becomes the nascent Dumbledore's Army. She is involved in the battle in the Department of Mysteries and seriously injured by a spell from Death Eater Antonin Dolohov, but makes a full recovery.[23][24] Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince New Potions professor Horace Slughorn invites Hermione to join his "Slug Club",[25] and she helps Ron retain his spot on the Gryffindor Quidditch team when she casts a confund spell on Cormac McLaggen, causing him to miss his last save attempt during Keeper tryouts. Hermione's feelings for Ron continue to grow and she decides to make a move by inviting him to Slughorn's Christmas Party, but he romances Lavender instead in retaliation for his belief that Hermione had kissed Krum years earlier. She attempts to get even by dating Cormac at the Christmas party, but her plan goes awry and she abandons him midway through the party.[26][27] Ron and Hermione continually feud with each other (Ron is upset with her because she set birds to attack him after seeing him and Lavender kissing; Hermione is mostly mad because of her growing jealousy) until he suffers a near-fatal poisoning from tainted mead, which frightens her enough to reconcile with him. After Dumbledore's death, Ron and Hermione both vow to stay by Harry's side regardless what happens.[28] A minor subplot in the book is that Hermione and Harry form a rivalry in Potions, as Hermione is used to coming first in her subjects and is angry that Harry outperforms her undeservedly by following tips and different instructions written in the margins of Harry's potions book by the previous owner. Hermione is also the only one of the trio to successfully pass her Apparition test (Ron failed, albeit barely, and Harry was too young). Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Hermione carrying Dobby's corpse. In the seventh and last book, Hermione accompanies Harry on his quest to destroy Voldemort's remaining Horcruxes. Before leaving on the quest, she helps ensure the safety of her parents by placing a false memory charm on them, making them think they are Wendell and Monica Wilkins, whose lifetime ambition is to move to Australia. She inherits Dumbledore's copy of The Tales of Beedle the Bard, which allows her to decipher some secrets of the Deathly Hallows. She prepared for their departure and journey by placing an Undetectable Extension Charm on a small beaded purse so she can fill the infinite depths of the bag with things they will need. Hermione's spell saves her and Harry from Lord Voldemort and his snake Nagini in Godric's Hollow, though the ricochet snaps Harry's wand. When she, Ron, and Harry are caught by Snatchers, who are hunting for Muggle-borns under the Ministry's orders, Hermione disguises Harry by temporarily disfiguring his face with a Stinging Jinx. She also tries to pass herself off as former Hogwarts student Penelope Clearwater and a half-blood to avoid persecution, but they are recognised and taken to Malfoy Manor. Bellatrix Lestrange tortures her with a Cruciatus Curse in an attempt to extract information on how Hermione, Harry, and Ron came to possess Godric Gryffindor's sword (which was supposed to be safe in the Lestrange vault at Gringotts). Bellatrix orders for Griphook the goblin to inspect the sword and tell whether it is fake or real. To save Hermione, Harry convinces him to lie to Bellatrix that the sword is a fake. When the others escape their cell, Bellatrix threatens to slit Hermione's throat. Hermione, Harry, Ron and the other prisoners being held in Malfoy Manor are eventually rescued by Dobby. Hermione later uses Polyjuice Potion to impersonate Bellatrix when the trio steal Hufflepuff's cup (a Horcrux) from Gringotts. She, Harry, and Ron join Dumbledore's Army in the Battle of Hogwarts, during which Hermione destroys Hufflepuff's cup in the Chamber of Secrets with a basilisk fang. Hermione and Ron also share their first kiss during the battle.[29] In the final battle in the Great Hall, Hermione fights Bellatrix with the help of Ginny Weasley and Luna. However, the three of them are unable to defeat Bellatrix and stop fighting her once Molly Weasley orders them to disengage.[30] Epilogue and later life Nineteen years after Voldemort's death, Hermione and Ron have two children, Rose and Hugo Granger-Weasley. Though the epilogue does not explicitly say Hermione and Ron are married,[31] news articles and other sources treat it as fact.[32][33][34] In other material In Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, it is shown that Hermione has become Minister for Magic, succeeding Kingsley Shacklebolt. Characterisation Appearance The books describe Hermione as having "bushy brown hair"[35][36][37] and brown eyes.[38] Her front buck teeth, already very large,[35][37] grow uncontrollably in Goblet of Fire after she is affected by a spell cast by Draco Malfoy.[39] Madam Pomfrey attends to her in the hospital wing and, at her request, shrinks the teeth down to a normal size that matches her mouth.[40] In the films, her hair is less bushy and she always has regular teeth. There is controversy[41] over whether Hermione's skin colour is ever categorically established in the books. Some take as proof a line from Prisoner of Azkaban: "Hermione's white face was sticking out from behind a tree."[42] They interpret this as a direct description of her skin tone. Others interpret it as a description relative to her usual complexion, arising due to fright and anxiety as she watches Harry Potter's attempt to save the hippogriff Buckbeak from execution. J.K. Rowling herself says Hermione "turned white" in that she "lost colour from her face after a shock."[41] Another description from early in Prisoner of Azkaban is: "They were there, both of them, sitting outside Florean Fortescue's Ice-Cream Parlour, Ron looking incredibly freckly, Hermione very brown, both waving frantically at him."[43] Some claim this is a direct description of her skin colour, while others claim it's a relative description of the results of a tan acquired over the summer break. Personality Hermione's most prominent features include her prodigious intellect and cleverness. She is levelheaded, book-smart, and always very logical. Throughout the series, Hermione uses the skills of a librarian and teacher to gather the information needed to defeat Voldemort, the "Dark Lord". When in doubt, she always turns to the school library.[44] She is often bossy yet unfailingly dutiful and loyal to her friends—a person who can always be counted on. J.K. Rowling said that Hermione "never strays off the path; she always keeps her attention focused on the job that must be done."[45] Despite Hermione's intelligence and bossy attitude, Rowling says Hermione has "quite a lot of vulnerability in her personality,"[46] as well as a "sense of insecurity underneath," feels, "utterly inadequate... and to compensate, she tries and strives to be the best at everything at school, projecting a confidence that irritates people."[47] During her DADA exam at the end of Prisoner of Azkaban, Hermione reveals that her biggest fear is failure after a Boggart takes the form of Professor McGonagall and tells her that she has failed all her exams. Hermione is extremely compassionate; and very quick to help others, especially the defenceless, such as Neville Longbottom, first-years, House-Elves, fellow Muggle-borns, half-giants like Hagrid, and werewolves like Lupin. After publication of the last book, J.K. Rowling revealed that Hermione's career in the Ministry was to fight for the rights of the oppressed and disenfranchised (such as House-elves or Muggle-borns). Hermione is also very protective of her friends and values them so much that Rowling has suggested that, if Hermione looked in the Mirror of Erised, she would see Harry, Ron, and herself alive and Voldemort defeated.[48] Hermione also learns to ignore what bullies such as Draco Malfoy say to her, often preventing Harry and Ron from retaliating and thinking of some way to outsmart him. She accepts her status as a Muggle-born, and says in Deathly Hallows that she is "a Mudblood and proud of it".[49] Magical abilities and skills Hermione is portrayed during the whole series as an exceptionally talented young witch. J.K. Rowling has said that Hermione is a "borderline genius."[50] She got ten O.W.L.s, which were nine Outstanding and one Exceeds Expectations. She is the best student in Harry's year and is repeatedly the first student to master any spell or charm introduced in her classes and even from more advanced years, as evidenced when she can conjure a Protean Charm on the D.A.'s fake Galleon coins, which is a N.E.W.T. level charm.[51] She is also the first one of her age to be able to cast non-verbal spells.[52] Hermione is a competent duellist – Rowling has stated that during the first three books Hermione could have beaten Harry in any magical duel, but by the fourth book Harry had become so good at DADA that he would have defeated Hermione.[53] Hermione did not tend to do as well in subjects that were not learned through books or formal training, as broom flying did not come as naturally to her in her first year as it did to Harry,[54] and she showed no affinity for Divination, which she dropped from her third-year studies.[55][56] She was also not good at Wizard's Chess, as it was the only thing at which she ever lost to Ron.[57] Hermione's Patronus is an otter, Rowling's favourite animal. In the Deathly Hallows book, while they enter the Ministry of Magic under disguise, Hermione impersonates Mafalda Hopkirk. Her wand is made of vine wood and dragon heartstring core; vine is the wood ascribed to Hermione's fictional birth month (September) on the Celtic calendar.[58] Reception Hermione is viewed by many as a feminist icon.[59] In The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter, the first book-length analysis of the Harry Potter series (edited and compiled by Lana A. Whited), a chapter titled "Hermione Granger and the Heritage of Gender" by Eliza T. Dresang, discusses Hermione's role in the series and its relation to feminist debates.[60] The chapter begins with an analysis of Hermione's name and the role of previous characters with the same name in mythology and fiction, and the heritage Hermione has inherited from these characters due to her name. Dresang also emphasises Hermione's parallelism with Rowling herself and how, as Hermione has some attributes from Rowling herself, she must be a strong character. The chapter also points out that, despite being born to Muggle parents, Hermione's magical abilities are innate. Her "compulsion for study" helps both the character's development, which makes Hermione "a prime example that information brings power", and the plot of the series, as her knowledge of the wizard world is often used to "save the day". Dresang states that "Harry and Ron are more dependent on Hermione than she is on them." However, she adds that Hermione's "hysteria and crying happen far too often to be considered a believable part of the development of Hermione's character and are quite out of line with her core role in the book."[60] UGO Networks listed Hermione as one of their best heroes of all time, saying, "Most of us can probably recall having a classmate like Hermione when we were in grammar school"—one who "can at first be a little off-putting, but once you get to know her, she's not a bad chick to have on your side".[61] IGN also listed Hermione as their second top Harry Potter character, praising her character development.[62] In 2016 The Hollywood Reporter did a poll of Hollywood professionals, including actors, writers and directors, into their favourite female characters of all time; Hermione topped the poll.[3] Philip Nel of Kansas State University notes that "Rowling, who worked for Amnesty International, evokes her social activism through Hermione's passion for oppressed elves and the formation of her 'Society for the Promotion of Elfish Welfare'".[63] However, in an analysis for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Rowland Manthrope states that "seven books on, we still only know her as swottish, sensible Hermione—a caricature, not a character."[64] Portrayals Film series Emma Watson played Hermione in all eight Harry Potter films. Watson's Oxford theatre teacher passed her name on to the casting agents of Philosopher's Stone, impressed with her school play performances.[65][failed verification] Though Watson took her audition seriously, she "never really thought she had any chance" of getting the part.[66] The producers were impressed by Watson's self-confidence and she outperformed the thousands of other girls who applied.[67] Rowling herself was supportive of Watson after her first screen test.[65] When asked if she thought actors suited the characters, Rowling said, "Yes, I did. Emma Watson in particular was very, very like Hermione when I first spoke to her, I knew she was perfect from that first phone call."[8] Watson was well-received for the first film; IGN even commented that "from Hermione Granger's perfect introduction to her final scene, Watson is better than I could have possibly imagined. She steals the show."[68] IGN also wrote that her "astute portrayal of Hermione has already become a favourite among fans."[69] Before the production of Half-Blood Prince, Watson considered not returning,[70] but eventually decided that "the pluses outweighed the minuses" and that she could not bear to see anyone else play Hermione.[71] Watson has said that Hermione is a character who makes "brain not beauty cool," and that though Hermione is "slightly socially inept," she is "not ashamed of herself."[72] When filming Chamber of Secrets, Watson was "adamant" that she wasn't like Hermione, but she reflects that "as I got older, I realised she was the greatest role model a girl could have."[73] In 2007, before the release of Order of the Phoenix, Watson said, "There are too many stupid girls in the media. Hermione's not scared to be clever. I think sometimes really smart girls dumb themselves down a bit, and that's bad. When I was nine or ten, I would get really upset when they tried to make me look geeky, but now I absolutely love it. I find it's so much pressure to be beautiful. Hermione doesn't care what she looks like. She's a complete tomboy."[71] Screenwriter Steve Kloves revealed in a 2003 interview that Hermione was his favourite character. "There's something about her fierce intellect coupled with a complete lack of understanding of how she affects people sometimes that I just find charming and irresistible to write."[10] Theatre In Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, Hermione is played by Eswatini-born actress Noma Dumezweni, known for her work in Linda, A Raisin in the Sun and A Human Being Died That Night.[74] Dumezweni described the role as a "privilege and a responsibility" and said that "we all aspire to be Hermione."[75] The choice of a black actress to play her, led to criticism on social media, which J.K. Rowling described as being by "a bunch of racists", adding that the books never explicitly mention her race or skin tone (though she did write in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, "Hermione's white face was sticking out from behind a tree."[42]) and that she has been portrayed as black in fan art.[41] Dumezweni herself called the backlash "so unimaginative",[76] stating that "So many young actors and actresses have told me that they’re so pleased I’m playing Hermione because they can see a version of themselves on the stage."[77] Dumezweni got praise for her performance; The Independent said that she "did a tremendous job as the stern witch."[78] At the 2017 Laurence Olivier Awards, Dumezweni got the Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role for her portrayal of Hermione.[77] In popular culture Hermione has been parodied in many sketches and animated series. On Saturday Night Live, Lindsay Lohan played Hermione.[79] On his show Big Impression, Alistair McGowan did a sketch, "Louis Potter and the Philosopher's Scone". It featured impressions of Nigella Lawson as Hermione.[80] In 2003, Comic Relief performed a spoof story called Harry Potter and the Secret Chamberpot of Azerbaijan, in which Miranda Richardson, who plays Rita Skeeter in the Harry Potter films, featured as Hermione.[81][82] Hermione also features in the Harry Bladder sketches in All That, where she appears as Herheiny and is played by Lisa Foiles. The Wedge, an Australian sketch comedy, parodies Hermione and Harry in love on a "Cooking With..." show before being caught by Snape.[83] Hermione also appears as Hermione Ranger in Harry Podder: Dude Where's My Wand?, a play by Desert Star Theater in Utah, written by sisters Laura J., Amy K. and Anna M. Lewis.[84][85] In the 2008 American comedy film Yes Man, Allison (played by Zooey Deschanel) accompanies Carl (Jim Carrey) to a Harry Potter-themed party dressed as Hermione. In Harry Cover, a French comic book parody of Harry Potter by Pierre Veys (later translated into Spanish and English), Hermione appears as Harry Cover's friend Hormone.[86] Hermione also appears in Potter Puppet Pals sketches by Neil Cicierega; and in the A Very Potter Musical, A Very Potter Sequel, and A Very Potter Senior Year musicals by StarKid Productions played by Bonnie Gruesen in the first two and Meredith Stepien in the third. Hermione is the focus of the fan-created web-series, Hermione Granger and the Quarter Life Crisis. Notes The scene in which Hermione solves the puzzle during the entrance to the Philosopher's Stone was not included in the movie. Bibliography Page numbers are shown as (UK/US) where applicable Rowling, J. K. (1997). Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. 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Archived from the original on 25 November 2006. Retrieved 8 June 2007. External links Hermione Granger on Harry Potter Wiki, an external wiki Hermione's entry at Harry Potter Lexicon Magical objects in Harry Potter Communication Fake Galleons In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Hermione Granger creates fake, enchanted Galleons (wizard money) that are used for communication between members of Dumbledore's Army (DA). Like non-enchanted Galleons,[1] the coins have numerals around the edge. On non-enchanted Galleons these serial numbers signify the goblin who cast the coin; on the enchanted Galleons, the numbers represent the time and date of the next DA meeting. Due to the coins being infused with a Protean Charm, once Harry Potter alters his, every coin changes to suit. The coins grow hot when the numbers change to alert the members to look at their coins. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Draco Malfoy uses a pair of enchanted coins to bypass the communication limits imposed on Hogwarts, thus managing to keep in contact with Madam Rosmerta, whom he had placed under the Imperius Curse. Draco reveals he got the idea from Hermione's DA coins, which were themselves inspired by Lord Voldemort's use of the Dark Mark to communicate with his Death Eaters. In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Neville Longbottom uses the DA's coins to alert people such as Luna Lovegood and Ginny Weasley that Harry, Ron and Hermione have returned to Hogwarts. Howler A Howler sent to Ron Weasley A Howler is a scarlet-red letter sent to signify extreme anger or to convey a message very loudly and publicly. When it is opened, the sender's voice, which has been magically magnified to a deafening volume, bellows a message at the recipient and then self-destructs itself by burning.[2] If it is not opened or there is a delay in opening it, the letter smoulders, explodes violently, and shouts the message out even louder than normal.[HP2] In the film version, the Howler folds itself into an origami-style set of lips and teeth and shouts the message out, and then shreds itself into scraps of paper before it burns itself. In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Ron Weasley receives a Howler from his mother, Molly Weasley, after he steals his father's enchanted car and flies it to Hogwarts with Harry. Neville Longbottom confesses that he had once gotten a Howler from his grandmother Augusta, stating that he ignored it and that the result was horrible. Subsequently, Neville receives another Howler from his grandmother after Sirius Black uses his list of passwords to enter the Gryffindor common room in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Hermione receives one in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire after Rita Skeeter publishes a false article about a relationship between Hermione and Harry. In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Dumbledore sends Harry's aunt Petunia Dursley a Howler to remind her of the agreement to allow Harry to live at Privet Drive when Harry's Uncle Vernon attempts to throw him out. Concealers Deluminator Dumbledore is using his deluminator in the film Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone A deluminator[3] is a device invented by Albus Dumbledore that resembles a cigarette lighter. It is used to remove or absorb (as well as return) the light from any light source to provide cover to the user. In Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Dumbledore uses the deluminator (then referred to as the Put-Outer)[HP1] to darken Privet Drive, where the Dursley family's house is located. It was seen in Order of the Phoenix where Dumbledore loans the deluminator to Alastor "Mad-Eye" Moody, who uses it when transporting Harry from the Dursleys' home to Sirius's home at Number 12, Grimmauld Place. In Half-Blood Prince, Dumbledore uses the deluminator again to darken Privet Drive before collecting Harry. In Deathly Hallows, it is bequeathed to Ron by Dumbledore in his will.[3] Later in the book, after Ron had left his friends in anger, the deluminator demonstrated an additional capability, similar to a homing device. Ron hears Hermione through the device as she says his name for the first time since he left, and, when he clicks it, the emitted ball of light enters his body and allows him to locate and Apparate to the vicinity of Harry and Hermione's camp. J. K. Rowling stated Dumbledore left it to Ron because he believed he might have needed a little more guidance than Harry and Hermione. Invisibility cloak See also: Cloak of Invisibility Within the Harry Potter universe, an invisibility cloak is used to make the wearer invisible. All are very rare and expensive. In Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them it is said invisibility cloaks may be spun from pelts of the Demiguise. Invisibility cloaks can also be ordinary cloaks with a Disillusionment Charm or a Bedazzlement Hex placed on them. Over time, these cloaks will lose their invisibility ability, eventually becoming opaque and vulnerable to penetration by various spells. Moody is known to possess two invisibility cloaks. One of these was borrowed by Sturgis Podmore in the course of work for the Order of the Phoenix. Barty Crouch, Sr. possessed one as well, which he used to hide his son Barty Crouch, Jr. to prevent him from being found and returned to Azkaban, the wizarding prison. Several times in the series, characters have been shown to either suspect or in some other fashion "sense" that Harry is wearing his cloak: Snape is seen to be suspicious when being followed by Harry, even reaching out to grab at (what appears to be) thin air; in Half-Blood Prince, Draco Malfoy realises Harry is in his train carriage and successfully immobilizes him with a Petrificus Totalus (Body-Bind) curse, as despite wearing his cloak Harry inadvertently moved objects near him; and in Chamber of Secrets, Albus Dumbledore senses Harry and Ron beneath it in Hagrid's cabin while talking to Lucius Malfoy during the event when Cornelius Fudge comes to take Hagrid to Azkaban and Lucius Malfoy hands over to Dumbledore his suspension letter. Dumbledore was able to sense Harry and Ron beneath the invisibility cloak by discreetly performing a non-verbal Human-presence-revealing Spell.[4] Deathly Hallows The sign of the Deathly Hallows represents all three objects symbolically: the Wand, the Stone, and the Cloak. The Deathly Hallows are three magical objects that are the focus of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – the Elder Wand, the Resurrection Stone, and the Cloak of Invisibility. When owned by one person, they are said to give mastery over death. The objects are generally remembered only as part of a wizard's fairy tale called The Tale of the Three Brothers, and have become mythological over time, but a small number of wizards including Dumbledore still believe in their existence and seek them. According to J. K. Rowling, the story about how these objects came into existence is based upon Geoffrey Chaucer's The Pardoner's Tale.[4] According to the tale, three brothers evaded Death, who gave them a choice of anything they wanted. The first brother chose a wand that could not be defeated in battle, the second brother asked for a way to bring back someone from the dead, and the third brother selected a cloak that made the wearer invisible, even to Death himself. Eventually, the first brother was killed, the second committed suicide, and finally, the third brother made Death a friend and gave the cloak to his son.[5][6] The story is generally believed to refer to the Peverell brothers centuries ago, although very few actually believe the story to be fully true. Dumbledore believed that the Peverells were simply particularly powerful and ingenious wizard inventors. The sign of the Deathly Hallows had also been adopted as a personal symbol by dark wizard Gellert Grindelwald; therefore many wizards, such as Viktor Krum, mistakenly understood it to be a symbol of dark magic. Dumbledore had sought the Hallows, initially in his youth as a friend of Grindelwald for the power they were said to bestow, but later on as a means to undo the accidental death of his sister. He eventually concluded he was "unworthy" to possess them. He feels Harry could be a more worthy custodian but also fears Harry would be enamored of their power, therefore he guides Harry to them in a circuitous manner. By contrast, Voldemort simply sought the wand for its supposedly unbeatable power, after his previous wand unaccountably failed to kill Harry Potter. He had not realised that the wand was one of three Hallows, nor sought the other two Hallows. He also possessed the Resurrection Stone but only made use of it as a horcrux. Dumbledore says that he doubts Voldemort would have any interest in the Cloak or the Stone even if he did know about them.[7] Harry eventually comes to possess all three Hallows – the cloak being inherited from his father James Potter, later understood to be a descendant of one of the Peverell brothers, the Resurrection Stone in the Golden Snitch bequeathed to him by Dumbledore, and the allegiance and mastery of the Elder Wand when he defeats and disarms its prior owner, Draco Malfoy, who unwittingly won it from Dumbledore just before Dumbledore's death. After Voldemort's death, Harry uses the Elder Wand to repair his own damaged wand, then decides to return it to Dumbledore's tomb, so that when Harry has a natural death, ownership of the Elder Wand will die with him. In the film, Harry realizes that the Elder Wand is too dangerous to fall into the wrong hands again, so he snaps it in two and throws it off a bridge. He also drops the Resurrection Stone in the Forbidden Forest but decides not to look for it in the hope that no wizard or witch will ever be able to own all three Hallows. He keeps the Cloak he had inherited, with the thought that he might pass it on to his children someday. Elder Wand A replica of the Elder Wand used in the film The Elder Wand, also known as, Deathstick or the Wand of Destiny,[HP7] is an extremely powerful wand made of elder wood with a core of Thestral tail hair.[8] In the book it is a thing of legend and is believed to have changed owners throughout history. The wand's allegiance is thought to be won by killing its previous owner, and therefore its "bloody trail" had become "splattered across the pages of wizarding history", making it the Hallow most easily verified to be a real object. However, Harry discovers from Garrick Ollivander the wandmaker that this popular understanding is incorrect; the Elder Wand actually transfers its loyalty upon the defeat or disarmament, and not necessarily the killing, of its previous master. It will never work fully for a new owner otherwise. This subtle distinction becomes the basis upon which Voldemort is finally defeated, when he believes he has won the wand's allegiance by killing Snape, who killed Dumbledore, while Harry realizes in fact he had disarmed the wand's true owner, Draco Malfoy, who had disarmed Dumbledore before Snape killed him. This left Harry and not Voldemort as the wand's true master in their final encounter, even though neither Draco nor Harry had physically possessed the Elder Wand at that point. According to wizard folklore, the Elder Wand used by its true master cannot be defeated in a duel; this is incorrect, for Dumbledore was able to defeat the legendary dark wizard Gellert Grindelwald, who was the master of the Elder Wand at that point.[9] It also appears, as the wand is somewhat sentient (as are all wands), that it will not allow itself to cause real harm to its true master. If its master dies naturally without ever being defeated or disarmed, the wand's exceptional power will end for any following owner, since it was never won from the former. The power of the Elder Wand was first shown in history, as Antioch Peverell, the eldest of the mythical Three Brothers, had a duel with an enemy he had long wanted to defeat. He won, and left his enemy dead on the floor; however after boasting of his unbeatable wand, Antioch was robbed and killed in his sleep by a rival wanting to take the wand. It eventually came to the possession of Mykew Gregorovitch, a Bulgarian wandmaker. Gregorovitch boasted about possessing the Elder Wand, believing it would boost his popularity, and he tried to reverse engineer[citation needed] its secrets as he faced competition from Ollivander. It was stolen from him by Grindelwald, a former friend of Dumbledore who sought to impose wizard power in the world. Grindelwald was defeated "at the height of his power" by Dumbledore, who in his later years considered it the "only hallow [he] was fit to possess, not to boast of it or kill with it, but to tame it". Dumbledore arranged his own death with Severus Snape, intending in part for Snape to "end up with the Elder Wand." Because his death would have been pre-arranged and not the result of his defeat, he had hoped this might break the wand's power. However, Draco Malfoy disarmed Dumbledore before his death at the hands of Snape, causing the plan to fail; the wand was buried in Dumbledore's tomb, but Draco had already unwittingly become its new master, even though he never took physical possession of it from Dumbledore. After Harry disarms Draco (even though Draco is not using the Elder Wand), the wand becomes loyal to Harry instead. In the final book, Voldemort seeks the wand in order to defeat Harry – his previous wands having failed – and breaks into Dumbledore's tomb to claim the wand as his own. During the Battle of Hogwarts, he understands that the wand is not performing for him as legend says it should, and mistakenly concludes this is because it had become loyal to Snape when Snape killed Dumbledore, and would only become loyal to him upon his killing of Snape. He therefore kills Snape, and believes the wand will thereafter serve him and be unbeatable, but during his final duel with Harry his Killing Curse rebounds and he dies – as Harry had warned him – since the Elder Wand will not allow itself to be used by him against its true master. After Voldemort's death, Harry uses the Elder Wand to repair his own broken holly and phoenix-feather wand, which he says he was "happier with." He decides to return the Elder Wand to Dumbledore's grave, feeling that if he dies peacefully, its superior power will end. In the film, Harry snaps the wand in two and throws the pieces off a bridge. Ron stated that the Elder Wand would be the Hallow he would choose, simply because it is the "unbeatable wand", arguing that it was only dangerous to the brother who requested it because he kept on talking about his ownership of it and encouraging people to fight him. Hermione (who said she would choose the Cloak) is skeptical, reminding him that the Wand, by its very nature, would make its possessor overconfident and braggadocious. J. K. Rowling revealed in an interview that the first working title for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was Harry Potter and the Elder Wand.[10] Resurrection Stone The Resurrection Stone allows the holder to bring back deceased loved ones, in a semi-physical form, and communicate with them. The form of Sirius Black generated by the stone tells Harry that he and the other forms created by the stone are part of him and invisible to others. This seems to suggest that these apparitions are conjured from memories and are not really resurrected people. According to the fairy tale concerning the origin of the Deathly Hallows, using the Resurrection Stone drove the owner to kill himself because he brought his late fiancée back from the dead, and she was very unhappy in the real world for she did not belong there. By the time the stone was seen in Marvolo Gaunt's possession, it had been set into a ring that bore the symbol of the Deathly Hallows, which the ignorant Gaunt believed to be the Peverell coat of arms; he used the ring to boast about his ancestry and blood purity. Both Dumbledore and Grindelwald desired the stone, but for different reasons. While Dumbledore wanted it to communicate with his dead family, Grindelwald allegedly intended to use it to create an army of zombie-like Inferi. Harry said this is the Hallow he would desire most, as like Dumbledore he could name people he would like to communicate with again. Voldemort became aware of the ring's antiquity and eventually used it as a Horcrux, a container for part of his soul, being unaware of the stone's additional magical properties.[citation needed] Dumbledore recovered the ring from Marvolo's estate, recognizing it as both a Horcrux and one of the Deathly Hallows. Forgetting that as a Horcrux, it was likely to be protected by curses laid by Voldemort, and blinded by personal desire, Dumbledore attempted to use the Resurrection Stone to talk to his deceased family. The curse destroyed his hand and began to spread throughout his body. Though the spread was partly contained in the destroyed and blackened hand by Snape, Dumbledore was doomed, having, at most, a year left to live. In their Kings Cross encounter, Dumbledore told Harry that this proved he had learned nothing from his past mistakes and ambitions for using the Hallows, and was part of the reason for his fear that Harry might also become obsessed with their power if told of them. The stone was later passed to Harry through Dumbledore's will, hidden inside the Golden Snitch Harry caught with his mouth, nearly swallowing it, in his first-ever Quidditch match. The Snitch revealed the message "I open at the close" when touched by Harry's lips. Harry is unable to open the Snitch until he is about to die in the Forest, and realizes then "the close" means the end, or his death. Harry uses the Stone to summon his deceased loved ones – his parents, his godfather Sirius Black, and Remus Lupin – to comfort him and strengthen his courage, before he goes to meet his death at Voldemort's hand. The stone falls unseen from Harry's numb fingers in the Forbidden Forest as he reaches Voldemort's encampment. Harry survives the encounter and he and Dumbledore's portrait later agreed that Harry will neither search for it nor tell others where it is.[11] In a 2007 interview, J. K. Rowling said she would like to believe a centaur's hoof pushed it into the ground, burying it forever.[4] Cloak of Invisibility See also: Invisibility cloaks Invisibility cloak Introduced in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone,[12] the cloak of Invisibility has the power to shield the wearer from being seen by Death. Unlike other invisibility cloaks known to exist, it is able to completely shield the wearer and others from sight and cannot be worn out by time or spells; other cloaks will lose their ability to conceal the wearer over time or become worn out, but the Hallow cloak will never fade or become damaged. At the end of Deathly Hallows, Dumbledore explains to Harry the cloak's true magic is it can shield and protect others as well as its owner. This is apparent when it does not respond to a Death Eater's Summoning Charm while concealing Harry, Ron and Hermione in Deathly Hallows. Hermione claims that this is the Hallow she would choose, citing the usefulness Harry has found of it. It was the Hallow belonging to Ignotus Peverell, who did not trust Death and took the cloak to hide from him, only giving it up when he was old and ready for death. After his death, the cloak was passed down from father to son through Peverell's descendants, through his granddaughter, Iolanthe Peverell of Godric's Hollow, who married Hardwin Potter of the Gloucestershire Potters, all the way directly down to James Potter.[citation needed] The cloak was not in James' possession the night he was murdered; he had previously lent it to Dumbledore, who was greatly interested in the Deathly Hallows and suspected that the Potter family heirloom was more than it appeared. Dumbledore returned the cloak to Harry[12] a decade later as a Christmas present during his first year at Hogwarts. Harry uses the cloak throughout the series in order to sneak around the school on various adventures. Harry's father also used the cloak for similar purposes. It is large enough to accommodate Harry, Ron, and Hermione as a group during their first year, but the three have increasing difficulty fitting under it as they grow taller in later years. While making the wearer invisible to Muggles and wizards, some creatures are able to sense people hidden under it. Snakes, for example, cannot see through the Cloak of Invisibility, but they can somehow detect people under it. Mrs. Norris, Filch's cat, also seems to sense Harry when he wears the cloak. Wearers can also be detected by the Human-presence-revealing Spell.[4] In Goblet of Fire, Moody's magical eye can see Harry under the cloak. In Prisoner of Azkaban, Dumbledore warns that the Dementors' perception of humans is unhindered by invisibility cloaks, as they are blind and sense people through emotions.[13] In the play Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, Harry gives the Cloak of Invisibility to his eldest son James Potter, noting he'd "been going on about the Invisibility Cloak since time itself".[14] However, James' younger brother Albus steals the Cloak and uses it to evade bullies at Hogwarts. Detectors Alastor Moody's Eyeball Alastor Moody lost his eye sometime during the First Wizarding War. He replaced it with an enchanted glass eyeball. In the film Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, the eyeball is blue, and replaces his left eye. In the books, it replaces his right eye. The eyeball has many magical enchantments on it, giving it the ability to see through walls and other solid objects, notably invisibility cloaks, can rotate 360 degrees inside his head, and can be fully removed from his head. The eyeball is also very sensitive, as after Barty Crouch Jr. was caught Moody complained that the eyeball kept sticking "ever since that scum wore it".[15] After Moody was killed on 27 July 1997 during the plan to move Harry from 4 Privet Drive, the eyeball was given to Dolores Umbridge after his body was recovered by Death Eaters. She placed the eyeball in her door so that she could keep an eye on her employees. Harry stole the eyeball during his raid on the ministry, and buried it in the forest, where the Quidditch World Cup was held.[16] Foe-glass A Foe-glass is a mirror that detects and shows its owner's enemies in or out of focus, depending on how close they are.[17] Barty Crouch, Jr., while impersonating Moody, says that when the whites of their eyes are visible, he is in trouble. When Crouch Jr. is attacking Harry after the third task, Harry sees Snape, McGonagall and Dumbledore approach the room in the mirror before they show up. A Foe-glass is hanging in the Room of Requirement in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix when Harry uses the Room for D.A. meetings. Like all dark detectors, it can be fooled, as mentioned by Harry at the beginning of the first D.A. meeting. The Marauder's Map After first appearing in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban the Marauder's Map was redesigned for each subsequent film The Marauder's Map is a magical map of Hogwarts created by Remus Lupin, Peter Pettigrew, Sirius Black, and James Potter (respectively nicknamed "Moony", "Wormtail", "Padfoot", and "Prongs") while they were students at Hogwarts. In Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Fred and George Weasley give the map to Harry so he can travel to Hogsmeade through a hidden passageway. The twins had previously stolen the map from a drawer in Filch's office that contained dangerous confiscated objects; it is revealed by Lupin that Filch probably knew what it was but not how to work it. Snape later finds the map in Harry's possession and tries to force it to reveal its secrets, but the map insults him. Lupin, the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher at the time, is called upon to investigate this "dark object", and confiscates it to keep Harry safe. Later he returns it to Harry after resigning his post at Hogwarts. From then on, the map becomes one of Harry's most useful tools in his ongoing adventures. When not in use, the Map is simply a blank piece of parchment. It can be activated by pointing a wand at it and saying, "I solemnly swear that I am up to no good", at which point the message "Messrs. Moony, Wormtail, Padfoot and Prongs, purveyors of aids to magical mischief-makers, are proud to present the Marauder's Map" appears, along with a detailed layout of Hogwarts. The map is restored to its original blank state by saying "Mischief managed". The map displays the location of everyone within the castle and its grounds. It includes locations of secret passageways and instructions on how to access them. Several locations like the Room of Requirement and the Chamber of Secrets do not appear on the map, either as the Marauders did not have any knowledge of them, or, in the case of the former, they are not a fixed location. Animagus disguises, Polyjuice Potion, and invisibility cloaks cannot fool the map. In Prisoner of Azkaban, Peter Pettigrew, who is supposed to be dead but as an Animagus has transformed into a rat, shows up on the map under his real name.[HP3] In Goblet of Fire, Barty Crouch, Jr. is using Polyjuice Potion to disguise himself as Moody. At one point, Harry catches him on the map searching Snape's office for ingredients, but mistakes him for his father, Barty Crouch, Sr., as the map cannot differentiate between two individuals who share a first and last name. Crouch Jr. subsequently confiscates the map from Harry, and uses it to track down and murder his own father when his father breaks free of the Imperius Curse and comes to Hogwarts looking for him.[HP4] On the prop version of the map made for the films, the lines are made up of what at first glance are just random letters, but upon closer inspection are Latin words. The series makes no mention of Harry recovering the map from Crouch Jr.'s office, even though he continued to use it in later books; when asked about this discrepancy, J. K. Rowling answered that Harry had indeed sneaked into the office and recovered it in the days following the Third Task, and that she had forgotten to include this detail in the book. When asked during an online question session, "What child did Harry give the Marauder's Map to, if any?" (after his school years), J. K. Rowling responded, "I've got a feeling he didn't give it to any of them, but that James (Harry's eldest son) sneaked it out of his father's desk one day."[4] However, in Cursed Child, Harry is shown to still possess the Marauder's Map and gives it to Professor McGonagall to keep an eye on his wayward son Albus Potter. Probity Probe A Probity Probe detects spells of concealment and hidden magical objects.[citation needed] The detector made its first appearance in Order of the Phoenix[citation needed] at the Ministry of Magic as a thin golden rod. After Voldemort's return, Probes are used as part of the increased security at Gringotts Bank as well as for scanning the students of Hogwarts for Dark objects. They are last seen when Harry, Ron, and Hermione arrive at Gringotts in Deathly Hallows to rob Bellatrix Lestrange's vault of one of Voldemort's Horcruxes. Remembrall Remembrall at Warner Bros. Studio Tour London – The Making of Harry Potter A Remembrall is a small, clear orb, about the size of a large marble, containing smoke that turns red when it detects that the person holding it has forgotten something.[18] It does not tell the holder what has been forgotten. The forgetful Neville Longbottom is sent a Remembrall by his grandmother in Philosopher's Stone. Remembralls are forbidden from being used during the O.W.L. exams.[15] Revealer A Revealer is a bright red eraser, used to make invisible ink appear. It made its first appearance in Chamber of Secrets when Hermione tried to make hidden writing appear in Tom Riddle's diary.[19] Secrecy Sensor The Secrecy Sensor is a dark detector described as "an object that looked something like an extra-squiggly, golden television aerial." It vibrates when it detects concealment and lies.[20] In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Barty Crouch Jr disguised as Alastor Moody mentions that it is "no use here, of course, too much interference – students in every direction lying about why they haven’t done their homework." In Order of the Phoenix, Secrecy Sensors are used at the Atrium Desk in the Ministry of Magic upon visitors to the government locale. Later in the book, Harry mentions to Dumbledore's Army that they can be easily fooled like their other dark-detecting counterparts. In Half-Blood Prince, due to Hogwarts' new stringent security measures, Argus Filch is assigned to inspect every student entering the castle with Secrecy Sensors. All the owls flying into Hogwarts are also placed under this measure to ensure that no Dark object enters the castle through mail. Hermione later explains that although Secrecy Sensors detect jinxes, curses, and Concealment Charms, they cannot detect love potions, as they are not considered Dark. Sneakoscope A Sneakoscope serves as a Dark Arts detector.[20] The device is described as a miniature glass spinning-top that emits shrill noises in the presence of deception, for instance, when an untrustworthy person is near or when a deceitful event takes place nearby. Sneakoscopes are introduced in Prisoner of Azkaban when Harry receives a pocket-sized version from Ron for his 13th birthday. Bill says that Pocket Sneakoscopes are unreliable, as it lit up and spun at dinner for apparently no reason, but Fred and George had put beetles in his soup without his knowledge. The sneakoscope appears again on the Hogwarts Express, and again in Harry and Ron's dormitory. Harry later discovers that Scabbers, Ron's rat, who is present each time the Sneakoscope is spinning, is actually Peter Pettigrew in Animagus form. In Goblet of Fire, Alastor Moody has several sneakoscopes that he somehow disabled, claiming, "It wouldn't stop whistling", keeping them in one of the seven compartments of his magical trunk. The sneakoscopes' constant alerts in his presence were because he was Barty Crouch Jr. using Polyjuice Potion. In Deathly Hallows, Hermione gives Harry a Sneakoscope for his seventeenth birthday which they later use as a lookout while in hiding.[citation needed] Weasley family clock The Weasleys’ clock The Weasleys have a special clock in their home, the Burrow, with nine hands, one for every member of the family. Instead of telling the time, the clock reveals the location or status of each family member. The known locations are: Home, School, Work, Travelling, Lost, Hospital, Prison, and Mortal Peril. The Weasleys are the only family mentioned in the series to own such a clock. Dumbledore calls the clock "excellent" and seems impressed by it.[21] The location Mortal Peril is situated where the numeral 12 would normally be. Throughout the first five books the hands change to reflect the varying statuses of the family members, but by the sixth book all nine hands point to mortal peril at all times, except when someone is travelling. Mrs. Weasley takes this to mean that with Voldemort's return, everyone is always in mortal peril, but she cannot verify this as she does not know anyone else who has a clock like hers.[HP6] Various fans have re-created the clock for their own families, for example by using geofencing for cell phones.[22][23] Games Exploding Snap Exploding Snap is a wizarding card game in which the cards spontaneously explode during games. The game is popular with Hogwarts students. In Chamber of Secrets, Harry and Ron are held back from investigating why spiders were fleeing Hogwarts because Fred and George delayed them with this game. Ron later singed his eyebrows while building a card house with Exploding Snap cards. In Order of the Phoenix, Lee Jordan is punished by Dolores Umbridge for saying that she cannot tell them off for playing this game, as one of her Educational Decrees states that teachers can only talk to students about the subjects they are paid to teach. In Cursed Child, Ginny remembers playing this game with Harry following the events of Chamber of Secrets and notes that it helped her to recover from the trauma (all the other students avoided her after learning the truth). Gobstones Gobstones is one of the many magical games played by young wizards in the books, along with Wizard's Chess and Exploding Snap. Gobstones is similar to the games of marbles and pétanque, except that in Gobstones, the balls spit, or gob, a foul smelling liquid in the face of the opposing player when they lose a point. Hogwarts students are seen playing Gobstones throughout the books, and there is even a Gobstones Club at the school. It is also noted in the Harry Potter series that Eileen Prince (Snape's mother) was captain of Hogwarts' Gobstone Club, as a student, at age 15. Quidditch balls The Quidditch balls consist of a Quaffle, a large red ball (and the only one not bewitched to fly on its own) which the Chasers need to get through the three hoops on the field, gaining ten points each time this successfully occurs; two Bludgers, which fly around attempting to disturb the game and knock people off their brooms, and which the Beaters hit away from teammates and towards the opposing team; and the Golden Snitch, a very fast and difficult-to-see golden orb the size of a walnut with wings, which the Seeker on each team must capture to finish the game and gain 150 points. The Quidditch players wear gloves, leg pads, padded head guards, and occasionally goggles. Self-Shuffling Playing Cards In Chamber of Secrets, a pack of Self-Shuffling Cards is mentioned as one of the various objects littering the floor of Ron's room in the Burrow.[24] Wizard's Chess Wizard's Chess is played with pieces and a board identical to Chess. The rules are also unchanged. The pieces are magically animated, and they violently attack each other when performing a capture, by knocking the captured piece out and dragging it off the board.[25] The players order the pieces to move using algebraic chess notation. Chess pieces Ron has a wizard's chess set left to him by his grandfather, and Harry first plays with pieces borrowed from Seamus Finnigan, which kept shouting him advice because they did not trust him.[HP1] Harry later gets a set of his own during his first Christmas at Hogwarts. During the 16th chapter of Philosopher's Stone, Harry, Ron and Hermione become human chess pieces in a life-sized game of Wizard's Chess, which Harry wins thanks to Ron's advice and sacrifice as a piece. In the films, the chess pieces are depicted using replicas of Lewis Chessmen. Horcruxes A Horcrux is an object used to store part of a person's soul, protecting him or her from death (a function similar to a phylactery from other fantasy works). If the body of a Horcrux owner is killed, that portion of the soul that had remained in the body does not pass on to the next world, but will rather exist in a non-corporeal form capable of being resurrected by another wizard, as stated in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince and demonstrated in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. If all of someone's Horcruxes are destroyed, then the soul's only anchor in the material world would be the body, the destruction of which would then cause final death. The creation of Horcruxes is considered the darkest of all magic.[26] This method was chosen by Voldemort to attain immortality. The concept is introduced in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. J. K. Rowling uses Horace Slughorn's expository dialogue to reveal that the creation of a Horcrux requires one to commit a murder, which, as the supreme act of evil, "rips the soul apart".[27] After the murder, a spell is cast to infuse part of the ripped soul into an object, which then becomes a Horcrux. Rowling has never published the actual enchantment. In the final book of the series, Hermione finds the spell in a book titled Secrets of the Darkest Art.[28] Rowling has revealed that she intends to detail the process and spell used to create a Horcrux in her long-mentioned Harry Potter Encyclopedia.[29] Both inanimate objects and living organisms have been used as Horcruxes, though the latter are considered riskier to use, since a living being can move and think for itself. There is no limit to the number of Horcruxes a witch or wizard can create. As the creator's soul is divided into progressively smaller portions, they lose more of their natural humanity and the soul becomes increasingly unstable. Consequently, under very specific conditions, a soul fragment can be sealed within an object without the intention or knowledge of the creator. While the object thus affected will, like any Horcrux, preserve the immortality of the creator, it does not become a "Dark object".[30] For example, Voldemort has unusual control over Nagini,[31] and consequently Nagini is able to communicate with Voldemort about the presence of Harry in Godric's Hollow in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Horcruxes made from inanimate objects are extremely difficult to destroy. They cannot be destroyed by conventional means such as smashing, breaking, or burning. To be destroyed, a Horcrux must suffer damage so severe that repair through magical means would be impossible. Very few magical objects or spells are powerful enough to achieve this (mentioned and used were the Fiendfyre, Gryffindor's Sword and Basilisk fang, the last two only being able to inflict such damage due to the basilisk venom permeating them both). Once a Horcrux is irreparably damaged, the fragment of soul within it is destroyed. A Horcrux can be deliberately undone magically only if the creator goes through a process of deep remorse for the murder committed to create the Horcrux. The pain of this remorse can be so excruciating that the process may kill the creator.[HP7] The known materials or objects known to be able to destroy Horcruxes are as follows: Basilisk Venom. When Harry killed the Basilisk in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, his arm was stabbed by a basilisk fang, and, shortly later, Tom Riddle states, "Remarkable, isn't it? How quickly the venom of the Basilisk penetrates the body." He also states that Harry would die within the minute. Basilisk fangs are permanently impregnated with the venom, making them very effective at destroying Horcruxes. The Sword of Gryffindor. The Sword cannot be damaged in any way, shape, or form, as it is goblin-made. It can only change in such a way that makes it stronger than it previously was. When it was used to kill a Basilisk, the blade absorbed the venom, making the blade fatal by a single cut, and making it capable of destroying Horcruxes, due to the presence of the venom on the blade. Fiendfyre. A magical flame that cannot be extinguished unless it runs out of fuel. It burns incredibly hot, and almost nothing can resist its power. It can be summoned by a simple spell, but is very difficult to control. Its damage is irreparable, making it possible to destroy Horcruxes, but would likely kill the user in the process, as this happened to Crabbe when he summoned the flame trying to kill Harry, Ron, and Hermione in the Room of Requirement. Voldemort's creation of Horcruxes is central to the later storyline of the Harry Potter novels. As the number seven is a powerful number in magic, Voldemort intended to split his soul into that many pieces, with six Horcruxes and the last piece reposing within his body.[32] When Voldemort attacked the Potter family, and his body was destroyed by the rebounded Killing Curse, a piece of his soul splintered off and attached itself to the only living thing remaining in the room, Harry Potter, in a manner similar to a Horcrux.[30] Later on, Voldemort went on to complete his collection of the intended six Horcruxes by turning his snake Nagini into one, thus fragmenting his soul into a total of eight (counting the one residing in his own body), not seven, pieces. By that time, though, unbeknownst to Voldemort himself, the first horcrux (a diary) had already been destroyed and, therefore, the seven Horcruxes never all existed together at the same point in time. All of Voldemort's deliberately created Horcruxes were made using objects that had been important to him or that held some symbolic value. He hid some of them carefully so that no one could find and destroy them, but used Nagini to do his bidding on several occasions, and the diary was always intended to be a weapon to carry out Voldemort's plan to remove Muggle-borns from Hogwarts. Even without magical protection, Horcruxes cannot be destroyed by any means of wand usage or physical force. In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Harry intentionally destroys the diary with a Basilisk fang,[33] although unaware it was a Horcrux at the time, to free Ginny from its influence. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, the discovery of the diary is revealed as the proof that leads to Dumbledore beginning the hunt for other Horcruxes, as it not only gives absolute proof that Voldemort split his soul, but also that there were likely other, better protected artifacts, given the risk Voldemort was taking by using the diary as a weapon. J. K. Rowling revealed on Pottermore that Quirinus Quirrell served as a temporary Horcrux when Voldemort's soul possessed his body during Harry's first year at Hogwarts. A notable difference, however, is that the piece of soul within Quirrell was able to exist without its container, as it abandoned Quirrell and left him to die in the underground chambers.[34] Tom Riddle's diary Tom Riddle's diary, with the basilisk fang that destroyed its horcrux Tom Riddle created his first Horcrux during his fifth year at Hogwarts, using his own school diary. He cast the spell after murdering his fellow student Myrtle Warren using the Basilisk.[35] The diary is introduced in the thirteenth chapter of Chamber of Secrets and is destroyed by Harry Potter during the climax of the same book. Before Voldemort's downfall, he entrusted the Horcrux to Lucius Malfoy.[35] While aware of its corrupting magical properties, Malfoy did not know the diary was a Horcrux from Voldemort, Voldemort having informed him of its value as a weapon but believing that he would be in a position to coordinate Malfoy's use of it. In an attempt to discredit Arthur Weasley as well as dispose of an incriminating Dark object, Malfoy hid the diary in Ginny Weasley's cauldron amongst her other books. Tom Riddle's soul-fragment possessed Ginny and, through her, reopened the Chamber of Secrets, eventually starting to draw her life from her. At the end of book two, Harry saved Ginny and destroyed the diary by stabbing it with the venomous fang of a Basilisk, making it the first Horcrux to be destroyed. His reports of the diary's behavior to Dumbledore were the latter's first inkling that Voldemort might have created not just one Horcrux, but several: "What intrigued and alarmed me most was that the diary had been intended as a weapon as much as a safeguard",[36] implying that Voldemort must have had backups of some sort. It is mentioned that Lucius was meant to wait for Voldemort's authorization before allowing the diary to be smuggled into Hogwarts, and that he never received it before Voldemort's first defeat. Voldemort did not learn of the diary's destruction until he forced the truth out of Lucius. To J. K. Rowling, a diary is a very scary object, having said in an interview: "The temptation particularly for a young girl, is to pour out her heart to a diary." Rowling's little sister Diane was prone to this, and her great fear was that someone would read her diary. This gave Rowling the idea to have a diary that is, in itself, against the confider.[37] When asked what would have happened if Ginny had died and Riddle had managed to escape, Rowling revealed that "it would have strengthened the present-day Voldemort considerably."[38] Marvolo Gaunt's ring Marvolo Gaunt's ring with the Resurrection Stone Tom Riddle created his second Horcrux using a ring owned by his maternal grandfather, Marvolo Gaunt, during the summer before his sixth year as a student at Hogwarts, when he was fifteen years old. The murder that created the Horcrux was that of his father. The ring is introduced during the fourth chapter of Half-Blood Prince, having already been destroyed by Albus Dumbledore.[39] In a Pensieve memory, it is revealed that Riddle had taken the gold ring, which has a black stone inscribed with a magical symbol, from his uncle Morfin Gaunt, whom he had framed for the murder of his Muggle father and grandparents by altering his uncle's memories. Riddle wears the ring while still a student at Hogwarts, but eventually hides it in the house where the Gaunt family had lived. It remains hidden under the floorboards, placed in a golden box and protected by several enchantments, until Dumbledore finds it during the summer break between the events of Order of the Phoenix and Half-Blood Prince. Dumbledore destroys the second Horcrux with Godric Gryffindor's sword, but, as revealed in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, he also recognizes the stone in the ring as the Resurrection Stone, one of the three Deathly Hallows. The Resurrection Stone was the Hallow Dumbledore most desired, hoping to assuage his guilt for his part in the death of his sister, Ariana. Though afterwards he recognized it as totally unwise, Dumbledore, forgetting it was also a Horcrux and thus likely to be protected by destructive enchantments, hoping to activate it and apologise to his long-dead family, places the ring on his hand. He is mortally injured by the ring's curses. The injury leaves his right hand permanently disfigured and would have killed him quickly if not for the intervention of Snape who slowed the curse to Dumbledore's withered right hand and arm. But Snape's efforts could not stop the curses from eventually killing him, and Dumbledore's planned death by Snape deceives Voldemort and his followers.[40] The damaged ring is kept for a time on a table in the Headmaster's office. Salazar Slytherin's locket Salazar Slytherin's locket Helga Hufflepuff's cup Tom Riddle created his fourth Horcrux using his own ancestor Salazar Slytherin's locket, which had once belonged to Riddle's mother, Merope Gaunt. The spell was cast after Riddle murdered a Muggle tramp.[41] The locket is introduced briefly in the sixth chapter of Order of the Phoenix, described only as "a heavy locket that not one of them could open" It is destroyed by Ron Weasley in the nineteenth chapter of Deathly Hallows. Slytherin's locket was passed down through the generations and eventually ended up in the possession of Merope Gaunt. After being abandoned by her Muggle husband Tom Riddle Sr., Merope sold the locket to Caractacus Burke, shopkeeper of Borgin & Burkes, for 10 Galleons, a small fraction of the locket's true value. The locket was eventually sold to Hepzibah Smith. Riddle stole the locket, along with Helga Hufflepuff's cup, after murdering Hepzibah Smith. Once the locket became a Horcrux, Voldemort hid it in a magically protected seaside cave. Dumbledore and Harry Potter pursued the locket in The Half-Blood Prince only to find a fake one at the bottom of the basin. Disillusioned Death Eater Regulus Black had learned about the Horcrux and its hiding place from his house elf Kreacher, whom he had originally volunteered to accompany Voldemort to hide the Horcrux. In an effort to bring about Voldemort's eventual downfall, he and Kreacher navigated the magical protection and stole the locket, replacing it with the false one to fool Voldemort. While Black died in the effort, killed by the surrounding Inferi, Kreacher took the locket back to their home at Number 12, Grimmauld Place. Unable to destroy it as Regulus had ordered, Kreacher continued to protect the locket for years. While the Order of the Phoenix was using the house as its headquarters, the locket was stolen by Mundungus Fletcher, a petty criminal and member of the Order. He gave it to Dolores Umbridge as a bribe when she caught him selling stolen property. Two weeks after learning these details, Harry, Ron, and Hermione infiltrated the Ministry of Magic, where Umbridge worked, and stole the locket. Ron later saved Harry from being strangled by it when he wore it around his neck while attempting to retrieve the sword of Godric Gryffindor from the bottom of a lake in the Forest of Dean. When Ron attempted to destroy the locket, the fragment of soul inside assumed the shape of Harry and Hermione and played on Ron's fear that his two friends had started a romantic relationship during his absence. Briefly at this point, Ron's eyes gleamed scarlet, like Voldemort's. Ron destroyed the locket using the sword of Gryffindor in the same forest. Helga Hufflepuff's cup Tom Riddle created his third Horcrux using Helga Hufflepuff's cup. The cup is introduced during the twentieth chapter of Half-Blood Prince and is destroyed by Hermione Granger in the thirty-first chapter of Deathly Hallows. Hepzibah Smith, who owned the cup, was a distant descendant of Helga Hufflepuff. Riddle killed Smith by poisoning her, stole the cup, then framed her house elf Hokey for the crime.[35] Voldemort entrusted the cup to Bellatrix Lestrange, who kept it protected in her vault at Gringotts Bank, a place to which Harry guessed a once penniless Voldemort would have always coveted a connection. Additional protective spells, including Geminio (multiply curse) and Flagrante (fire curse), were used to protect the contents of the vault. Harry, Ron and Hermione, with Hermione disguised as Bellatrix, broke into the bank and stole the cup. Hermione later destroyed the Horcrux using a fang from the remains of the Basilisk still in the Chamber of Secrets during the Battle of Hogwarts.[42][43] Rowena Ravenclaw's diadem Rowena Ravenclaw's diadem Tom Riddle created his fifth Horcrux using Rowena Ravenclaw's diadem. The diadem is introduced briefly in the twenty-fourth chapter of Half-Blood Prince, it was described as "a tarnished tiara" in the Room of Requirement, but was later introduced by name and destroyed with Fiendfyre cast by Vincent Crabbe in the thirty-first chapter of Deathly Hallows. Ravenclaw's daughter, Helena, stole the diadem from her mother in an attempt to become more intelligent than her mother. She fled to Albania, where she hid the diadem in the hollow of a tree when the Bloody Baron searched for her. After Helena was murdered by the Bloody Baron, she became the Ravenclaw house ghost. Tom Riddle, while a student at the school, endeared her ghost so that she would tell him the location of the diadem. Shortly after leaving Hogwarts and after the murder of Hepzibah Smith, he traveled to Albania and retrieved the artifact.[44] Voldemort murdered an Albanian peasant to turn the diadem into a Horcrux.[41] Years later Voldemort hid the diadem in the Room of Requirement when he returned to Hogwarts to reapplying for the Defence Against the Dark Arts position; he was denied the job by Albus Dumbledore.[44] Because Voldemort believed himself to be the only one to have discovered the Room, he never placed any curses around the diadem.[dubious – discuss] In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Harry first comes into contact with the diadem when he hastily hides Snape's old potions book in the Room of Requirement. The diadem was mentioned merely as an "old discoloured tiara" in the sixth book; Harry used it to help mark the spot so he could later find where he placed the book. Later, after having the diadem described to him by the Ravenclaw ghost, Harry recalls this scene and hurries to retrieve it from the Room.[44] The diadem was unintentionally destroyed by a Fiendfyre curse cast by Vincent Crabbe as he, Gregory Goyle, and Draco Malfoy attacked Harry, Ron, and Hermione inside the Room.[44] In the film version, Harry stabs the diadem with another basilisk fang and Ron kicks it into the Room of Requirement, as the Fiendfyre reaches the door. Harry Potter Main article: Harry Potter (character) When Voldemort attempted to murder Harry, he inadvertently sealed a fragment of his soul within him in a manner similar to a Horcrux. The event took place just before the opening chapter of Philosopher's Stone. Rowling has explicitly stated that Harry never became a proper "Dark object" since the Horcrux spell was not cast.[30] Regardless, as with all Horcruxes, Voldemort would remain immortal so long as his soul fragment remained within Harry.[45] That portion of Voldemort's soul is unintentionally destroyed by Voldemort himself at the close of the thirty-fourth chapter of Deathly Hallows with the help of the Elder Wand. As a baby, Harry was in the room when Voldemort's fatal Killing Curse backfired. Voldemort's soul had been weakened and destabilised by his continuous murders and the creation of his previous Horcruxes. Harry became a Horcrux when a fragment of Voldemort's soul attached itself to him after the unsuccessful curse. The lightning bolt-shaped scar on Harry's forehead is a direct result of this attempted murder, and the connection that formed as a result is used to explain several important plot points. Throughout the series, Harry is able to receive insight into Voldemort's mental and emotional states, allowing the reader to eavesdrop on the series' primary antagonist. This insight is usually accompanied by pain in the scar on Harry's forehead. Through Voldemort, Harry also inherited the ability to speak and understand Parseltongue. It is also revealed by Rowling in an interview that Harry's frequent pain in his scar when Voldemort is either active, nearby, or feeling strong emotions, is really the trapped bit of soul yearning to depart from Harry's body and rejoin its master's soul.[46] This yearning was one of the reasons why the Killing Curse used by Voldemort on Harry in the Forbidden Forest does destroy the fragment of Voldemort's soul within Harry, but only sends Harry's soul into a near-death state. Harry could return to his body despite being hit by the Killing Curse from the Elder Wand because Voldemort had used Harry's blood to regain his full strength in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, and because the actual master of the Elder Wand, Draco Malfoy, had been defeated by Harry, making Harry the new master of the Elder Wand. Harry's ownership of the wand used for the curse and the Horcrux-like connection between Voldemort and Harry diminished Voldemort's curse and protected Harry from irreversible death.[47] While Voldemort did learn of Harry's telepathic connection, Voldemort was never aware that Harry was inadvertently carrying a fragment of his soul. With this destroyed, the connections between the two were also broken, and Harry never again felt pain in his scar. Rowling revealed Harry has also lost the ability to speak Parseltongue, though he regained the ability to understand it in Harry Potter and the Cursed Child after his scar began to hurt again following the rise of Voldemort and Bellatrix's daughter Delphi whom Harry, his son Albus, and his allies defeated and sent to Azkaban.[41] In the epilogue of the last film, the scar has faded to an ordinary looking scar on Harry's forehead. Nagini Main article: Nagini (Harry Potter) The sixth Horcrux was Nagini, the snake Voldemort had with him constantly. This Horcrux was created by Voldemort when he was hiding in the forests of Albania; the murder victim whom he used for its creation was Bertha Jorkins. He found Nagini, and becoming smitten by the snake, turned it into a Horcrux, being connected with it.[41] In the last chapter of Deathly Hallows, Nagini was killed by Neville Longbottom using the sword of Godric Gryffindor. The destruction of the last remaining Horcrux made Voldemort mortal. Legendary magical artifacts Goblet of Fire Goblet of Fire The Goblet of Fire is a goblet made of wood and is used at the beginning of every Triwizard Tournament. It is used solely to choose the participating school champions, serving as an "impartial judge."[HP4] Slips of parchment with the names of potential candidates are placed in the Goblet and, at the designated time, a representative from each school is chosen when the slip of parchment containing their name spouts forth from the Goblet in a fountain of magical fire. Barty Crouch Jr., masquerading as Professor Moody, stated that the Goblet of Fire was "an exceptionally powerful magical object" and it is very difficult to hoodwink, unless someone uses an exceptionally strong Confundus Charm. During its use in Goblet of Fire, it is placed in the entrance hall and surrounded by an "Age Line", a charm placed by Dumbledore to prevent underage wizards from entering the tournament. Anyone underage would grow a long white beard, as the Weasley twins demonstrated when they attempted to fool the goblet with an Ageing Potion. When not in use, the Goblet is kept in a jeweled casket in Dumbledore's closet. Godric Gryffindor's Sword Gryffindor's Sword The Sword of Godric Gryffindor is a goblin-made[48] sword adorned with large rubies on the pommel. It was once owned by Godric Gryffindor, one of the medieval founders of Hogwarts. In Chamber of Secrets, Harry draws the Sword out of the Sorting Hat to battle and kill Salazar Slytherin's basilisk.[49] When Dumbledore learns of Harry's concern that he does not belong in the House of Gryffindor, in part at being parseltongue like Lord Voldemort, the headmaster is able to put the boy's concerns at ease by telling him only a true member of that house could have summoned that sword in his time of need. The sword also plays a key role in Deathly Hallows, where it is revealed to have become imbued with Basilisk venom following its use against the Basilisk, as it "only takes in that which makes it stronger". It is subsequently used to destroy three of Voldemort's Horcruxes. Because the Sword was goblin-forged, it is indestructible. According to Griphook the goblin, the Sword was originally forged by the goblin Ragnuk the First and "stolen" by Gryffindor. The Sword was taken by Griphook when the Sword fell from Harry's grasp during the raid on Bellatrix Lestrange's vault in book seven. The sword returned to wizard hands when Neville pulled it out of the Sorting Hat and used it to decapitate Nagini, Voldemort's snake. This shows that no matter where the sword happened to be at the time, it will reappear in the Hat when a true member of Gryffindor house is in need of it. Rowling has confirmed that Gryffindor did not steal the sword from Ragnuk and that this belief is merely part of Griphook's goblin mistrust and prejudice against wizards.[citation needed] Godric Gryffindor commissioned Ragnuk the First to make the sword for him under his specifications. Once Ragnuk had made the sword, he was so fond of it that after he had presented it to Gryffindor, he told the goblins it had been stolen and sent minions to retrieve it for him. Gryffindor defeated the goblins using magic and instead of killing them, he bewitched them to go back to Ragnuk and say that if he tried to take the sword again, he would use it against them. The king took the threat seriously, but still insisted it had been stolen from him until the day he died.[50] It is mentioned in the Deathly Hallows that the Sword of Gryffindor is supposed to be in Bellatrix Lestrange's vault, placed there by Severus Snape. Unknown to Bellatrix, that sword was only a replica.[clarification needed] When Harry, Ron and Hermione were captured and brought to Malfoy Manor, she spotted the sword near one of the Snatchers, who intended to keep it. She killed him and forced the rest out of the room, then tortured Hermione for information about the sword. But at Harry's request, Griphook lied and said that the sword was a forgery. Bellatrix's reaction to having her vault possibly broken into convinced Harry that the Horcrux was also placed in her vault. Philosopher's stone Philosopher's stone Based upon the ancient alchemical idea of the philosopher's stone, the stone is owned by Nicolas Flamel and first mentioned in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. The stone is legendary in that it changes all metals to gold, and can be used to brew a potion called the Elixir of Life, making the drinker immortal. The Philosopher's Stone is seen only in the first and last book, although it is referenced several times throughout the series. It was destroyed at the end of the first book by Dumbledore with Flamel's agreement. In the American version, this stone is called the sorcerer's stone.[51] Sorting Hat The Sorting Hat as seen on the queue for the theme park attraction, Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey. The Sorting Hat is a sapient artefact used at Hogwarts, which uses Legilimency (essentially, the ability to read minds) to determine which of the four school houses – Gryffindor, Hufflepuff, Ravenclaw or Slytherin – each new student is to be assigned for their years at Hogwarts.[52] The hat resembles a dilapidated conical leather wide-brimmed wizard's hat, with folds and tears that make it appear to have eyes and a mouth. During the opening banquet at the beginning of each school year, the Hat is placed on every first-year student's head. The Hat announces its choice aloud, and the student joins the selected house. The Hat speaks to the student while they're being sorted and is willing to take the student's preferences into account when it makes its decision. Sometimes it does not have the need to do so: for instance, the Hat barely touched Draco Malfoy's head before sending him to Slytherin. The Sorting Hat had a difficult time placing Harry, almost placing him into Slytherin house before he requested specifically and emphatically not to be.[52] The Hat instead placed him into Gryffindor, the house of his parents.[52] The Sorting Hat originally belonged to Godric Gryffindor, one of the four founders of Hogwarts. The four founders used to hand-pick the students for their houses, but then realised someone else would have to do it after they died, so Gryffindor took off his hat, enchanted it, and let it choose.[53] Since then, the Sorting Hat has always been used to choose which house the students are put in. Due to its age, it appears "patched and frayed and extremely dirty." Before Sorting the students each year, the hat recites a new introductory song. These songs occasionally warn of danger to come, as in Order of the Phoenix. The Sorting Hat's songs vary in length and content, but always include a brief description of each house. The Sorting Hat has shown the ability to conjure the Sword of Gryffindor from under its brim, as shown on two instances. Both times it is used to kill snakes; in Chamber of Secrets, it provides the sword to Harry to kill the Basilisk, and in Deathly Hallows, it delivers the sword to Neville. Dumbledore makes it clear in Chamber of Secrets that only a true Gryffindor can summon the sword in this fashion. In Deathly Hallows the Sorting Hat is set on fire by Voldemort, although it appears the hat was not destroyed, as Neville was able to draw the Sword of Gryffindor from it immediately after and behead Voldemort's snake Nagini. In the epilogue at the end of Deathly Hallows, the Hat's survival is confirmed, as Harry tells his youngest son that the Hat would take his preference into consideration. According to Pottermore, a Hatstall is 'an archaic Hogwarts term for any new student whose Sorting takes longer than five minutes. This is an exceptionally long time for the Sorting Hat to deliberate, and occurs rarely, perhaps once every 50 years. Of Harry Potter's contemporaries, Hermione Granger and Neville Longbottom came closest to being Hatstalls. The Sorting Hat spent nearly four minutes trying to decide whether it should place Hermione in Ravenclaw or Gryffindor. In Neville's case, the Hat was determined to place him in Gryffindor: Neville, intimidated by that house's reputation for bravery, requested a placing in Hufflepuff. Their silent wrangling resulted in triumph for the Hat.'[54] J. K. Rowling has stated on Pottermore that 'The Sorting Hat is notorious for refusing to admit it has made a mistake in its sorting of a student. On those occasions when Slytherins behave altruistically or selflessly, when Ravenclaws flunk all their exams, when Hufflepuffs prove lazy yet academically gifted and when Gryffindors exhibit cowardice, the Hat steadfastly backs its original decision. On balance, however, the Hat has made remarkably few errors of judgement over the many centuries it has been at work.'[55] In the Harry Potter films, the Sorting Hat is voiced by actor Leslie Phillips. Mirrors The Mirror of Erised Mirror at the Wizarding World of Harry Potter, Universal Studios Hollywood The Mirror of Erised is a mystical mirror discovered by Harry in an abandoned classroom in Philosopher's Stone. On it is inscribed "erised stra ehru oyt ube cafru oyt on wohsi". When mirrored and correctly spaced, this reads "I show not your face but your heart's desire." As "erised" reversed is "desire," it is the "Mirror of Desire." Harry, upon encountering the Mirror, can see his parents, as well as what appears to be a crowd of relatives. The last thing Harry saw in the mirror was Voldemort defeated.[56] Ron sees himself as Head Boy and Quidditch Captain holding the House Cup, revealing his wish to escape from the shadow of his highly successful older brothers. Dumbledore cautions Harry that the Mirror gives neither knowledge nor truth, merely showing the viewer's deepest desire, and that men have wasted their lives away before it, entranced by what they see. Dumbledore claims to see himself holding a pair of socks he always wanted,[57] telling Harry that "one can never have enough socks," and lamenting that he did not receive any for Christmas, since people will insist on giving him books.[citation needed] However, Harry suspects that this is not true. J. K Rowling has stated that what he really sees is his entire family alive, well and happy together again, much like Harry.[56] The Mirror of Erised was the final protection given to the Philosopher's Stone in the first book. Dumbledore hid the Mirror and hid the Stone inside it, knowing that only a person who wanted to find but not use the Stone would be able to obtain it. Anyone else would see him or herself making an Elixir of Life or turning things to gold, rather than actually finding the Stone, and would be unable to obtain it. What happens to the mirror afterwards is unknown. Two-way mirrors In Order of the Phoenix, Sirius gives Harry a mirror he originally used to communicate with James while they were in separate detentions. That mirror is a part of a set of Two-way Mirrors that are activated by holding one of them and saying the name of the other possessor, causing his or her face to appear on the caller's mirror and vice versa. Harry receives this mirror from Sirius in a package after spending his Christmas holiday at Grimmauld Place. Harry, at first, chooses not to open the package, although he does discover the mirror after Sirius' death, by which point it is no longer functional. It makes its second appearance in Deathly Hallows when Mundungus Fletcher loots Grimmauld Place and sells Sirius' mirror to Aberforth Dumbledore, who uses it to watch out for Harry in Deathly Hallows. When Harry desperately cries for help to a shard of the magical mirror (which broke in the bottom of his trunk), a brilliant blue eye belonging to Aberforth (which Harry mistakes for Albus' eye), appears and he sends Dobby, who arrives to help Harry escape from Malfoy Manor to Shell Cottage. Prank objects Weasleys' Wizard Wheezes Main article: Weasleys' Wizard Wheezes Prank objects from Weasleys' Wizard Wheezes are made and designed by the owners of the shop, Fred and George, who test their new creations on themselves and other Hogwarts students. Weasley's Wild-fire Whiz-Bangs are enchanted fireworks that have overly spectacular and remarkable effects. In the books, they are engineered to not generate any amounts of heat, light, or noise that could be harmful. In the film of Order of the Phoenix, however, the fireworks create a large fiery dragon that attacks Umbridge, burning her and leaving her covered in soot. Skiving Snackboxes are sweets that are designed to make the eater temporarily ill in order to skip or "skive off" class. Each variety of Snackboxes causes a different effect, such as vomiting, fainting or developing nosebleeds. One end of the sweet causes the malady, while the other end subsequently cures it. The snackboxes include: Nosebleed Nougat, Fever Fudge, Fainting Fancies, Blood Blisterpods and Puking Pastilles. Patented Daydream Charms are kits that put the user into a realistic 30-minute daydream which they imagine, and can easily be customised so as to be fitted into any lesson. A Headless Hat creates a limited field of invisibility that covers the wearer's head, giving him or her the appearance of not having a head. Its counterpart is a Shield Hat, which deflects minor hexes and curses. Though Fred and George design the Shield Hat to be a trick item, Ministry officials are impressed by its practical value and order 500 of them for protection of the Aurors. Shield Cloaks and Shield Gloves are also on sale following the Shield Hat's success. Trick Wands are magical fake wands that turn into a silly item (rubber chickens, tin parrots, etc.) when someone tries to use them. More expensive varieties beat the unwary user about the head and neck. Ton-Tongue Toffees make the eater's tongue temporarily grow to an alarmingly large size, as read about in Goblet of Fire when Fred "accidentally" drops some in front of Dudley, who subsequently eats one they "forgot" to retrieve. Canary Creams make the eater turn briefly into a large canary; when the effect wears off, the person molts and returns to normal. U-No-Poo causes the consumer to have constipation, or as Fred and George refer to it: "The constipation sensation that's gripping the nation." Its name is a play on "You-Know-Who", commonly used to refer to Voldemort. Extendable Ears are long flesh-coloured strings, one end of which is inserted into a user's ear and the other end placed further away towards a conversation or sound. Much like a listening device, the user will be able to hear the sounds as if they were much closer to the source. They were first introduced by Fred and George Weasley in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, when they used the ears to listen to the Order's meetings, until one was destroyed (and eaten) by Crookshanks. Portable Swamps are, as the name suggests, realistic pop-up swamps. They were first seen in Order of the Phoenix after Umbridge is named Headmistress. Fred and George set one off in a corridor, partly as a distraction for Umbridge so Harry can use her fireplace, and partly to just cause general mayhem. They seem to be reasonably difficult to remove: Umbridge cannot remove it and forces Filch to punt students across, while Professor Flitwick vanishes it almost instantly later on in the novel. (He leaves a small patch untouched as a tribute to Fred and George, who have left Hogwarts by this point.) Decoy Detonators are described as black horn type objects that will run out of sight, and make a noise giving the user a good distraction. Introduced in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. First used by Harry while breaking into Dolores Umbridge's office at the Ministry of Magic in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Guaranteed Ten-Second Pimple Vanisher Pygmy Puffs (miniature Puffskeins) Edible Dark Marks There are also prank items which the Weasleys import from elsewhere, such as: Peruvian Instant Darkness Powder, which throws an area into darkness that cannot be penetrated by wand light or any magical means, although the effect wears off in a few minutes. Draco Malfoy uses it to avoid members of Dumbledore's Army in Half-Blood Prince. It is also used in the Half-Blood Prince film by Harry in order to gain access to the luggage space above Draco Malfoy's table on the Hogwarts Express. Zonko's Joke Shop Zonko's Joke Shop was a favorite place for Hogwarts students to shop on Hogsmeade trips. It carried "jokes and tricks to fulfil even Fred and George's wildest dreams." Such products include Hiccough Sweets, Frog Spawn Soap, and Nose-Biting Teacups. Fred and George tried to buy the place to expand their shop in Hogsmeade during Harry's sixth year, but they turned it down due to the dark times coming up. Other prank objects Other prank objects include Belch Powder,[58] Dungbombs (which explode and cause a large and extremely smelly mess), and Ever-Bashing Boomerangs (which hit their target repeatedly after being thrown). Fanged Frisbees are quite literally normal Frisbees with fangs and are first mentioned in Goblet of Fire as one of Filch's newest restricted items during Dumbledore's start-of-term speech. However, they make their first appearance in Half-Blood Prince when Ron whirled one around the Gryffindor common room, it changed course with a mind of its own, and took a bite out of a tapestry. Most of these objects are banned at Hogwarts due to the possibility of injury. More objects include Screaming Yo-Yos, which scream very loudly when worked, and Stink Pellets, which are used to distract prefects and teachers, and give a most unpleasant smell.[58] Storage receptacles Hermione's handbag In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Hermione used an Undetectable Extension Charm on her beaded handbag, significantly enlarging the bag's internal dimensions without affecting its physical size. As well, the mass of the objects placed in her handbag is negated, making the bag easy to carry. Bags similar to this appear in other contexts, such as the "bag of holding" in Dungeons and Dragons or the "magic satchel" in many other games, and Felix the Cat's "bag of tricks." Mary Poppins also seems to have a handbag of similar uses. Hermione uses it to carry everything they need when they travel across the United Kingdom on their hunt for Horcruxes. Mokeskin pouch Mokeskin pouches are a type of draw-string pouch that can be operated only by the owner. Harry receives one as his 17th birthday present from Hagrid, using it to store several items of personal significance, such as the Golden Snitch, his broken wand, the false locket, the shard of Sirius' mirror and the Marauders' Map. Moody's Magical Trunk Moody’s Magical Trunk Alastor Moody owns a strangely bewitched magical trunk. It has seven locks on it, and the trunk opens to a different assortment of objects for each lock. Most notably, though, the seventh compartment is about 10 feet (3 m) deep (possibly because of the use of an Undetectable Extension Charm), and is where Barty Crouch Jr. imprisoned the real Moody. Other compartments contain spellbooks, Dark Detectors, and Moody's invisibility cloak. Pensieve Pensieve stone basin A Pensieve is a stone basin used to review memories. Covered in mystic runes, it contains memories whose physical form is neither gas nor liquid. A witch or wizard can extract their own or another's memories, store them in the Pensieve, and review them later. It also relieves the mind when it becomes cluttered with information. Anyone can examine the memories in the Pensieve, which also allows viewers to fully immerse themselves in the memories stored within, much like a magical form of virtual reality. Users of these devices view the memories from a third-person-point-of-view, providing a near-omniscient perspective of the events preserved. J. K. Rowling confirmed memories in the Pensieve allow one to view details of things that happened even if they did not notice or remember them, and stated "that's the magic of the Pensieve, what brings it alive."[59] The memories contained in the Pensieve have the appearance of silver threads. Memories that have deteriorated due to age, or that were heavily manipulated or tampered with to alter perspectives (such as Slughorn's), may appear thick and jelly-like and offer obscured viewing. Memories are not limited to just those of humans, since Hokey the house-elf provided Dumbledore with a memory as well. It makes its last appearance in Deathly Hallows when Harry uses it to uncover the truth about Snape. In the fourth film, the Pensieve in Dumbledore's office conforms to the description given in the novel. However, in the sixth and eighth films, it appears as a shallow metal dish, floating in midair and filled with a mercury-like liquid. During the eighth film, Harry removes it from the stone basin so he can use it to examine Snape's memories. Transportation Arthur Weasley's flying Ford Anglia One of the Ford Anglia 105E cars that appears in the films Arthur Weasley owned a 1960 Ford Anglia 105E that he subsequently enchanted; consequently, the vehicle can fly, become invisible, and carry the entire Weasley family in spite of its formerly non-enchanted interior dimensions (also the Undetectable Extension Charm), among other abilities. The enchantment placed on the car also made it semi-sentient. In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, the car is borrowed by Fred, George and Ron, who use it to rescue Harry from the Dursleys' house. Ron and Harry later steal the car in order to return to Hogwarts after the gate to Platform 9¾ is sealed by Dobby. After they arrive at school, landing in the Whomping Willow, the car ejects Harry, Ron, and their luggage, then flees into the Forbidden Forest, ignoring Ron's pleas for it to come back. Mr Weasley soon faces an inquiry at the Ministry of Magic, as seven Muggles saw the car flying across areas of Central London and the British countryside, and is forced to pay a large fine. The car reappears when Harry, Ron, and Fang visit Aragog in the forest: when the great spider's colony of acromantula attempt to devour the three, the car attacks the spiders and carries them to safety; it allowed Ron to control its functions during the escape. The car does not return to the Weasleys despite saving Ron, Harry, and Fang, instead reentering the forest to remain on its own. The car's current condition is undisclosed; Ron had commented that the enchanted vehicle had become "wild" and thus operated autonomously, like a wild animal. According to Ron, the car does not require fuel and can keep going until it is destroyed. Canonically, it is still roaming around the Forbidden Forest, waiting for a Weasley to have need of it again. The 1962 Ford Anglia used in the film was acquired by Rupert Grint, who plays Ron Weasley, and is currently displayed in the National Motor Museum, Beaulieu.[60] A total of 14 Ford Anglias were destroyed during the filming of the scene where the car crashes into the Whomping Willow. A replica of the car in its feral state could be seen in the queue line for the now-defunct Dragon Challenge roller coaster at the Universal Studios Islands of Adventure theme park. Occasionally it blinked its headlights and honked its horn when its motion detectors sensed that guests were standing in front of it or walking by it. The replica has been integrated into Hagrid's Magical Creatures Motorbike Adventure and can be seen sitting atop a large rock formation with its windshield wipers and headlights running while under the control of Cornish Pixies. It can also be heard blaring its horn as riders pass beneath the arch. The car appears in the Hogwarts Express attraction where it can be seen flying alongside the train before crashing in the Forbidden Forest.[citation needed] Broomsticks Broomsticks displayed at the Warner Bros. Studio Tour London: The Making of Harry Potter Broomsticks are used for transportation by witches and wizards of all ages, and for participating in the game of Quidditch. Their use is similar to that of flying carpets, although the latter are banned in Great Britain by the Ministry of Magic. However, they are uncomfortable for extended trips, even with a cushion charm applied, and thus many wizards favour other means of transport for those journeys. Broomsticks are treated as a major consumer product in the wizarding world. There are numerous manufacturers and models of brooms, including Cleansweeps and Comets, all of which vary in their capabilities. These range from expensive high-performance models to toy broomsticks for young children that fly only a few feet off the ground to family-sized broomsticks that seat multiple people and include a luggage compartment below the seating area. Since Harry plays Quidditch, his broomsticks - a Nimbus 2000 and later a Firebolt - are prominent in the series. The Nimbus 2000 was given to him by special consent of Dumbledore via Minerva McGonagall, who had chosen him as the Gryffindor Seeker.[HP1] The Firebolt was given to him by his godfather Sirius Black as a Christmas gift after his Nimbus was destroyed by the Whomping Willow tree during a Quidditch match.[HP3] The Firebolt remains the fastest broom in the world, having surpassed the previous record holder, the Nimbus 2001 (which Draco Malfoy owns and which his father Lucius Malfoy had given as gifts to the entire Slytherin team as a bribe to have Draco as their Seeker). The price of the Firebolt is so high it is only available upon request.[HP3] Floo Powder Floo Powder as seen in Chris Columbus' film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Floo Powder is a glittering powder used by wizards to travel and communicate using fireplaces. It was invented by Ignatia Wildsmith (1227–1320) and named after the flue, which is the passageway that leads from a fireplace to the chimney and allows hot gases to escape. Floo powder can be used with any fireplace connected to the Floo Network. To transport from one to another, the fire at the point of departure must first be lit. The traveler throws a handful of Floo powder into the flames, turning them emerald green, then steps into the fireplace and states the intended destination in a clear and purposeful voice. Floo powder can also be used for communication; a wizard or witch can kneel in front of the fireplace and stick their head into the fire, which will then appear in the fire of the destination fireplace, leaving the witch or wizard free to talk. It is also known that other body parts may be transported via Floo Powder, as Umbridge almost catches Sirius the second time he converses with Harry through the Floo network. Voices can also be transmitted through the Floo Network, as seen in the Prisoner of Azkaban by Snape, who summons Lupin through his office's fireplace while interrogating Harry about the Marauder's Map. In Chamber of Secrets, the Weasleys travel to Diagon Alley using Floo Powder. Harry did not say "Diagon Alley" clearly enough due to coughing in the fire's smoke and ashes, so he was sent to Borgin and Burkes in Knockturn Alley. In the fourth book, Mr. Weasley uses his position at the Ministry to have the Dursleys' fireplace temporarily connected to the Floo Network, unaware that it had been blocked up. Sirius uses the network to communicate with Harry in the same book. In the fifth book, Harry uses the Gryffindor fireplace and later Umbridge's fireplace to communicate with Sirius; he is forced to use the latter because Umbridge begins monitoring all other lines of communication in and out of Hogwarts. The Floo Network is controlled by the Ministry of Magic. The Ministry also has over 700 fireplaces in its headquarters so that officials and workers can go directly to/from work without the hustle and bustle of travelling on brooms or by Portkey - or the indignity of having to flush themselves in through a public toilet, as portrayed in Deathly Hallows. According to Pottermore, the only licensed producer of Floo Powder in Britain is Floo-Pow, a company whose Headquarters is located in Diagon Alley. No shortage of Floo Powder has ever been reported, nor does anybody know anyone who makes it. Its price has remained constant for one hundred years: two Sickles a scoop.[61] Flying carpets Flying carpets are rugs, that are enchanted with the ability to fly. Flying Carpets were once an accepted form of travel for the British magical community, but they are banned due to being defined as a Muggle Artefact[62] by the Registry of Proscribed Charmable Objects. It is therefore against British wizarding law to charm carpets or fly them, although they are still legal in other countries. Mr. Weasley was heavily involved in the introduction of this legislation due to his position in the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts office. It is revealed that the ban was relatively recent, not only due to Mr. Weasley's involvement, but also because Barty Crouch's grandfather owned and operated a 12-seater Axminster before flying carpets were prohibited. Hogwarts Express Main article: Hogwarts Express The Hogwarts Express is the train which transports Hogwarts students to and from the school at the beginning and end of each term. It also transports willing students home for the Christmas holidays. It is stationed in Hogsmeade when not in use, and it can be accessed only by using the magical wall between the platforms 9 and 10 of King's Cross train station (known as " Platform 9¾") in London. Knight Bus The Knight Bus, seen in the Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban film, at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. The Knight Bus is a heavily enchanted purple triple-decker Regent Three class bus that transports witches and wizards. Anyone wishing to use the bus may hail it by holding out their wand hand, regardless of where they are or the time of day. It makes its first appearance in Prisoner of Azkaban when Harry unintentionally hails it by throwing out his wand arm to break his fall after a stumble. Harry has a final ride on the Knight Bus with a number of his friends in Order of the Phoenix. The Knight Bus is faster than travelling by broomstick, but not as fast as near-instantaneous Floo Powder and Apparating. The bus charges for the service based on distance; Harry is charged a base fare of 11 Sickles to travel from Little Whinging to The Leaky Cauldron. Amenities such as hot-water bottles, toothbrushes, and hot chocolate are available for a small additional fee.[HP3] The bus functions as a convenient form of public transportation for wizards and witches who either prefer to use it or are unable to travel by other means. The riders are seemingly picked up by the bus from all over in-universe Great Britain, bringing passengers to the destinations of their choice with seemingly no set route. It bolts through the streets entirely invisible to Muggles and causes other objects to dodge it (instead of the other way around) for short distance-travel. For longer distances, the Knight Bus instantly leaps 100 miles (160 km) at a time, accompanied by a great bang and jolt. The interior of the bus changes depending on the time of day, having seats by day and beds by night. It is also highly uncomfortable, according to Ron and Harry. Its only mentioned limitation in travelling is that it is unable to voyage through water. The conductor of the Knight Bus is Stan Shunpike, and its driver is Ernie Prang. In the third film, Ernie is accompanied by a talking shrunken head voiced by Lenny Henry. As revealed on Pottermore, the Knight Bus was first commissioned in 1865 as a method for underage or infirm wizards to transport themselves discreetly. The idea was proposed by then-Minister of Magic Dugald McPhail, after a number of other ideas such as broomsticks with sidecars were vetoed, taking inspiration from the then-relatively-new bus service.[63] The actual Knight Bus seen in the film adaptation was built by grafting the top deck of a London AEC Regent III RT bus onto the top of another "RT" bus. Both buses were originally built for London Transport; the "RT" was the standard London diesel-powered double-decker bus of which approximately 4,000 were built from 1939 until the mid-1950s (and were used in daily service until 1979). The actual bus used was RT3882 (registration LLU681), with the additional top deck from former RT2240 (registration KGU169). Parts of RT 4497 (OLD 717) were also used.[64] A replica of the Knight Bus sits in front of the London facade at The Wizarding World of Harry Potter in Universal Studios Florida, serving as a stage for a small audience-interactive show with a Stan Shunpike look-alike and a shrunken head. Portkeys Portkeys are first introduced in Goblet of Fire by Arthur Weasley. They are an alternative to Apparation but can also be used to transport a group of people at once. Created by using the Portus spell, a Portkey can be set to transport anybody who touches it to a designated location or to become active at a predetermined time and transport itself and anyone touching to its set destination.[65] It may be created for one-way, one-time use or to transport the holder to and from a particular place in a round trip; in addition, it may be set to activate at a particular time or automatically transport the first person who touches it. The creation of Portkeys is highly restricted and controlled by the Ministry through the Department of Magical Transport's Portkey office. Cornelius Fudge objects to Dumbledore spontaneously creating one, stating that Dumbledore hasn't got authorisation; and at one point in chapter 3, Lupin says, "... it's more than our life's worth to set up an unauthorised Portkey."[66] Any object can be used as a Portkey. As a safety measure to discourage unsuspecting Muggles from picking them up and activating them, wizards are advised to use old, worthless items.[67] Portkey objects used in the Potter series include a football and an old Wellington [boot]. Once the Portus charm is cast upon an object, it glows blue and vibrates gently; once settled it has become a Portkey. When Portkeys are activated, users feel the sensation of a hook being jerked from behind their navel. The floor disappears from beneath their feet, leaving their last position behind them, and they fly forward through a whirlwind of colour and sound, appearing suddenly at their destination.[65] With enough practice it is possible to achieve a graceful landing: After the Portkey trip to the Quidditch World Cup in the fourth film, Mr. Weasley, Cedric and Amos Diggory land on their feet, while the less experienced teenagers, including Harry, fall on the ground. A Portkey plays an important role later in the climax of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. At the end of the Triwizard Tournament, the Triwizard Cup is revealed to have been turned into a Portkey by Barty Crouch, Jr. to transport Harry and Cedric to a graveyard, where Cedric is killed and Voldemort regains physical form. Prompted by his parents, Harry later uses the Portkey to escape with Cedric's body back to Hogwarts. Sirius Black's Enchanted Motorbike Sirius Black‘s motorbike Sirius Black owned a flying motorbike, which he lent to Hagrid the night Harry's parents died. It is first seen when Hagrid delivers the baby Harry to Number 4, Privet Drive in the first book, and then again when Hagrid uses it to transport Harry to a safe house in the seventh volume. In Deathly Hallows, various modifications have been made to the bike by Mr. Weasley, allowing it to create a brick wall or a net that erupts from the exhaust pipe and to shoot dragon fire from the exhaust, impelling the bike's sudden acceleration. The dragon-fire feature is used to great effect by Hagrid and Harry when being chased by Voldemort; however, Mr. Weasley did warn that he was unsure of its safety and that they should use it only in an emergency. He was right to say this, as the sidecar of the motorbike, unaffected by Hagrid's magic, dislodged after the abrupt acceleration. The bike is severely damaged when, with Hagrid and Harry aboard, it crashes into Ted and Andromeda Tonks' garden pond. Mr. Weasley covertly tells Harry that he plans to put the bike back together when "he has time", meaning when Mrs. Weasley is distracted or has forgotten about it. He hides it in the chicken coop and manages to repair it, giving it to Harry between the end of Deathly Hallows and the epilogue. The bike is now still in Harry's possession, but he doesn't use it. Time-Turner Time-Turner A Time-Turner may be used for short-term time travel. Hermione receives a Time-Turner from McGonagall in Prisoner of Azkaban, enabling her to attend more than one class simultaneously. Hermione is ordered to keep it a secret from everyone, including Harry and Ron, although they notice the suspicious impossibility of her schedule and several bizarre disappearances and reappearances. Hermione reveals the secret to Harry and Ron near the end of the book, when she and Harry use the Time-Turner to save Sirius Black and Buckbeak. Strained by her heavy course load, she returns the device to McGonagall at the end of the novel. In the film version, however, only McGonagall, Dumbledore and Harry know that Hermione possesses the time-turner, as Ron witnesses Harry and Hermione travelling back in time in the infirmary, but sees them returning moments later near the end of the film. A large supply of Time-Turners is kept at the Ministry, as seen in Order of the Phoenix; however, during the events of that book, a glass-fronted cabinet containing the Time-Turners is destroyed. Due to their time-affecting properties, the cabinet is seen to fall, shatter and repair itself repeatedly. In Half-Blood Prince, Hermione quotes an article in The Daily Prophet which stated that "the entire stock of Ministry Time-Turners" was destroyed during that incident. The books do not discuss who else may be in possession of Time-Turners outside of the Ministry. Time-Turners are dangerous when in the wrong hands, as it is said that many wizards met their demise after confronting and accidentally killing their own selves from the future, so they are issued very carefully. Hermione's Time-Turner resembles a gold hourglass pendant on a necklace; it is unclear if all do. The user twists the hourglass pendant, with the number of twists corresponding to the number of hours of back travel required.[68] Time-Turners are a significant point device in Cursed Child, where it is revealed that a principle known as Croaker's Law restricts all legal Time-Turners to travelling a maximum of five hours into the past (any longer would create ripple effects that would harm either the time traveller or time itself) – although it is widely rumoured that Draco Malfoy's son Scorpius is the son of Lord Voldemort and that Scorpius' mother used a Time-Turner to make this possible. An illegal Time-Turner capable of travelling back years is confiscated from a Dark wizard by the Ministry of Magic (although official word remains that all Time-Turners are destroyed) and is later stolen by Albus Potter and Scorpius Malfoy, who intend to travel back in time to prevent the death of Cedric Diggory. Unfortunately, they quickly discover the Time-Turner is a cheaply made prototype that only takes them back for five minutes before forcibly returning them to the present. After accidentally creating (and then undoing) an alternate reality where Voldemort survived and took over the world, Albus and Scorpius resolve to destroy the Time-Turner, but are forced into another time trip by the story's villain and are left trapped in the past when the Time-Turner is destroyed. Back in the present, Draco reveals he possesses a professionally made Time-Turner (bound by neither Croaker's Law nor the five-minute flaw) - he never admitted its existence for fear it would lend credence to the rumours surrounding his son and never used it (despite being tempted by the possibility of seeing his dead wife alive again). When Albus and Scorpius are able to send a message to their parents, Draco's Time-Turner is used to rescue the boys. Vanishing Cabinet The Vanishing Cabinet is a cabinet located in the Room of Requirement at Hogwarts. It is one of a pair. The other cabinet resides in Borgin & Burkes. If used properly, a person who steps into one of the cabinets will instantly emerge from the other. The Vanishing Cabinet is first seen in Chamber of Secrets when Harry hides in it to elude the Malfoys after accidentally traveling to Borgin & Burkes via the Floo Network; its transportation features are not activated as he does not shut the Cabinet completely. Its Hogwarts counterpart is also mentioned in Chamber of Secrets when Nearly Headless Nick persuades Peeves the Poltergeist to drop it (thus breaking it) over Filch's office in order to help Harry escape detention for tracking in mud. It was also used in Order of the Phoenix by Fred and George when they forced Montague, the Slytherin Quidditch captain and a member of Dolores Umbridges' Inquisitorial Squad, into it when he tried to take house points from Gryffindor. Draco then learns of Montague's experience, discovering transportation is possible between the two Cabinets and the other is located in Borgin & Burkes. In Half-Blood Prince he manages to repair the broken one at Hogwarts so as to transport the Death Eaters into the highly secured castle. Though this set is the only one mentioned in the book series, the film version of Half-Blood Prince reveals that they were popular when Voldemort first came to power, as they would allow people to make a quick getaway from Voldemort and his Death Eaters in an emergency. Writing equipment Anti-Cheating Quill The Anti-Cheating Quill, a quill with an anti-cheating charm on it, first mentioned in Philosopher's Stone.[PS Ch.16] In book five they are assigned to every O.W.L. student – and presumably those taking other exams – in order to prevent students from cheating in their written exams. Auto-Answer Quill The Auto-Answer Quill is a quill that has been bewitched so that when the quill touches a question on a piece of parchment it writes the answer instantly. The quill is banned from the O.W.L. Examinations and the inks are checked out every time the test is on.[OotP Ch.31] Blood Quill The Blood Quill is a torture quill used by Umbridge throughout the Order of the Phoenix to punish students that she has given detention. It is described as having an unusually sharp black nib. As the user writes, the quill magically and very painfully cuts into the back of the user's hand and uses his or her blood for ink. In the fifth book, Harry has detention with Umbridge on several occasions; he is required to write lines (I must not tell lies) and is not released from this until Umbridge believes "the message has sunk in." When carried out repeatedly over an extended period, this leads to permanent scarring, as Harry shows Scrimgeour in the last two books. The scars tingle whenever Harry hears Umbridge's name, but it is not clear whether this is psychological or akin to Harry's forehead scar hurting whenever Voldemort is active. Another victim of this form of detention is Lee Jordan; in the film adaptation of the book, members of Dumbledore's Army are forced to use these quills as well. Blood quills are considered illegal to own. The Quill of Acceptance According to Pottermore, the Quill of Acceptance is a magical object which detects the birth of a child with magical capabilities. It is located in Hogwarts School, where it records the children's names in a large book. Professor McGonagall consults the book and sends out the subsequent Hogwarts acceptance letters by owl once the child turns eleven. It has been made very popular due to its use in registering users for the closed beta of Pottermore.[69][failed verification] Quick Quotes Quill A Quick Quotes Quill is a stenographic tool, acid green in colour, employed by Rita Skeeter to spin the words of her subjects into a more salacious or melodramatic form. In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Skeeter uses the quill to interview Harry about his participation in the Triwizard Tournament for her column in The Daily Prophet. Harry continually tries to alert her to the inaccuracy of the quill; however, she continually ignores him. Additionally, in Deathly Hallows, Rita mentions in her Daily Prophet interview concerning her posthumous biography of Dumbledore that her Quick Quotes Quill helped her to write the book so quickly after his death. Spell-Checking Quill The Spell-Checking Quill temporarily corrects spelling as the user writes; however, once the charm wears off it constantly misspells words, even if the user writes them correctly. The most notable example is its misspelling of Ron's name as "Roonil Wazlib" in Half-Blood Prince. It is sold through Weasley's Wizard Wheezes, the joke shop opened by Fred and George Weasley. Other uncategorised objects These objects remain uncategorised as they are the only ones in their field. Cauldron Cauldrons Cauldrons are magical receptacles in which potions are brewed. They can be bought at the Cauldron Shop in Diagon Alley. There are many different sizes and materials for cauldrons; Hogwarts asks students to buy a simple pewter size 2 cauldron, though in the first book Harry expresses a longing for one of pure gold. In Goblet of Fire, Percy Weasley writes a report on cauldrons for his new Ministry job in the hope that it will push regulation of the thickness of cauldron bottoms, as he believes foreign imports are a safety risk. Gubraithian fire Gubraithian Fire is an everlasting magical fire that may only be created by extremely skilled wizards. Hagrid and Madame Maxime gave a bundle of Gubraithian fire, conjured by Dumbledore, as a gift to the Gurg (leader) of the giants during their attempts to sway them to Dumbledore's side (Death Eaters were trying to get them on their side).[HP5] Omnioculars Omnioculars are a pair of magical brass binoculars used by Harry, Ron and Hermione in the fourth book during the Quidditch World Cup. Omnioculars, besides having the magnification capabilities of binoculars, have many other useful features. For example, they have the ability to slow down or replay something seen through the lenses, although a side effect is that the view in the lenses is not current and can lead to confusion as to the state of the match. They also have a play-by-play feature, where the names of moves performed by Quidditch players is shown in bright purple letters across the Omnioculars' lenses.[HP4] Omnioculars also have the ability to list the names and numbers of the players, and can zero in on players rapidly. Spellotape Spellotape is magical adhesive tape. The name is a play on Sellotape, a popular brand which has become a generic name for transparent adhesive tape in the United Kingdom.[70][71] It is used by Ron in Chamber of Secrets to repair his wand after he breaks it while trying to halt Mr. Weasley's flying car. It is also used by Hermione in Prisoner of Azkaban when she binds her Care of Magical Creatures (the Monster Book of Monsters) textbook to prevent it from biting her, and by Kreacher to mend a photo of Bellatrix Lestrange later in the series. It is used by Ginny in Goblet of Fire, who was mending her copy of the One Thousand Magical Herbs and Fungi textbook. Wand Range of wands A wand is a wooden stick-like object used to channel magical energy and thus increase its power, and without which only limited magic is possible. Wands are used as both tools and weapons in the wizarding world. They are thus an important aspect of nearly all magic, and great importance is placed on wand mastery. Wands are generally carried inside the wizard's robes or otherwise somewhere on their person; however, they can also be placed into other objects. For instance, Rubeus Hagrid hid the broken halves of his wand inside his umbrella, and in the film adaptations, Lucius Malfoy hides his wand in his cane. In the magical world, when a wizard is expelled from Hogwarts, their wands are snapped in half. This type of damage to a wand is nearly irreparable, though Harry is able to mend his wand, which was accidentally broken by Hermione, with the help of the powerful Elder Wand. A wand is made by a wandmaker who is learned in wandlore, the study of wands. Wands are handcrafted from high-quality woods, or "wandwoods", which are capable of sustaining magic (e.g. holly, yew, ebony, vinewood, mahogany, cherry, oak, etc.). A core is then inserted into the middle of the wand from top to bottom, which gives it its power to generate magical effects. Common cores include phoenix tail feathers, unicorn tail hairs, and dragon heartstrings. Veela hair is also used, but less commonly. In the Deathly Hallows, the Elder Wand is described as the only wand with a core made from the tail hair of a Thestral.[8] The only wand shop seen in the books is Ollivanders. Garrick Ollivander is a wandmaker who has an eidetic memory concerning wands, as well as the ability to identify the distinguishing features of a wand. In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Ollivander is seen to evaluate two foreign wands: Viktor Krum's, whose wand was crafted by Gregorovitch, was unusually thick and had a dragon's heartstring core; Fleur Delacour's, created by an unknown wandmaker, was made of rosewood with a core of Veela hair. Ollivander believes Veela hair produces "temperamental" wands and does not use it. Salazar Slytherin's wand contained a fragment of a basilisk horn, which allowed Slytherin and other Parselmouths who possessed it to cast spells with it at a distance by speaking to it in Parseltongue. In the United States, wand cores are created from the horn of river serpents, Wampus hair, Snallygaster heartstring, and Jackalope antlers, a practice originated in the 17th century by the first American wandmaker, Isolt Sayre, an Irish immigrant who founded the Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in Massachusetts, and the Slytherin wand's last owner. She buried it outside the school grounds, and within a year, an unknown species of snakewood tree grew from the burial spot. It resisted all attempts to prune or kill it, but after several years the leaves were found to contain powerful medicinal properties.[72] A wand is generally considered a very personal object. Wands belonging to other wizards can be borrowed, resulting in a comparatively less potent effect. In Philosopher's Stone, Harry had to try out many wands before he found one that "chose him." Wands with cores from the same source give strange effects (Priori Incantatem) when forced to fight each other, as is the case with Harry and Voldemort's wands. In Goblet of Fire, it is revealed each of their wands contains a tail feather from Fawkes, the phoenix belonging to Dumbledore. After Priori Incantatem, the wands get to know the opposites' master, as explained in Deathly Hallows. While, according to Ollivander, any object can channel magic if the wizard is strong enough, wands are the most commonly used because of their efficiency (due to the owner's bond with the wand itself). This can explain how some wizards are able to use spells without wands (for example, retrieving an item with Accio). Furthermore, wands are able to be won from a witch or wizard and can therefore change their allegiance. This is the case when Harry takes Draco's wand at Malfoy Manor, and consequently the wand's allegiance swaps to Harry, as explained by Ollivander; and, by extension, so does the allegiance of the Elder Wand, which itself has changed hands many times. References Quinn, Shannon. "Could You Afford to Live in the World of Harry Potter?". MoneyWise. Retrieved 24 July 2021. Delmonico, Monica (17 March 2018). "DIY: Harry Potter Howler". Popcorner Reviews. Retrieved 24 July 2021. "Was Ron Weasley always destined to need the Deluminator? | Wizarding World". www.wizardingworld.com. Retrieved 24 July 2021. "Online Chat Transcript". Bloomsbury. 31 July 2007. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2007. Rowling, J.K. (2008). The tales of Beedle the Bard. A&C Black. "A lesson on the Hallows". Pottermore. Retrieved 5 January 2018. The Deathly Hallows, page 340: Harry "And Voldemort never knew about the Hallows?" Dumbledore "I do not think so, because he did not recognize the Resurrection Stone he turned into a Horcrux. But even if he had known about them, Harry, I doubt that he would have been interested in any except the first. He would not think that he needed the Cloak, and as for the stone, whom would he want to bring back from the dead? He fears the dead. He does not love." "Extra Stuff". J.K.Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 8 December 2007. The Tales of Beedle The Bard – Page 104 "News: Transcript of JK Rowling web chat". Hpana. Hpana.com. 30 July 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2017. Starner, Nina (5 October 2020). "The Problem With The Resurrection Stone In Harry Potter". Looper.com. Retrieved 24 July 2021. Rafter, Darcy (5 July 2021). "Who gave Harry the invisibility cloak? Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone sparks interest!". HITC. Retrieved 24 August 2021. "Harry Potter at Bloomsbury". Bloomsbury.com. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2011. Rowling, J. K.; Tiffany, John; Thorne, Jack (31 July 2016). Harry Potter and the Cursed Child – Parts One and Two (Special Rehearsal ed.). Pottermore Publishing. pp. Act 1 Scene 7. ISBN 978-1-78110-704-1. Rowling, J.K. (2003). Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. New York, NY: Scholastic. pp. 708–709. Rowling, J. K. (2007). "The Tale of the Three Brothers". Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Bloomsbury. ISBN 1551929767. Kern, Edmund (2010). The Wisdom of Harry Potter. Prometheus. p. 84. ISBN 9781615921225. Retrieved 25 July 2021. "Harry Potter: Why Neville's Remembrall Turned Red". ScreenRant. 21 June 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021. Rowling, J. K. (2012). Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Mary GrandPré. [England]: Pottermore. ISBN 978-1-78110-008-0. OCLC 779348871. Riphouse, Acascias (2004). The Harry Potter companion. College Station, TX: Virtualbookworm.com Pub. p. 247. ISBN 1-58939-582-4. OCLC 63888263. Order of the Phoenix - Dumbledore: "That will be a job for Fawkes when he has finished keeping a lookout for anybody approaching, but she may already know... that excellent clock of hers..." This ‘Harry Potter' Fan Made An Epic Real-Life Version Of The Weasley Clock Weasley Clock in 9 Steps Rowling, J. K. (1998). "The Burrow". Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0747538492. Mark Weeks (23 July 2005). "Elsewhere on the Web: Harry Potter Wizard Chess". Archived from the original on 22 October 2005. "Horcrux". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 28 July 2021. Rowling, J.K. (2005). Half-Blood Prince (in English). London: Bloomsbury Publishing, et al. p. 465. UK ISBN 0-7475-8108-8. Rowling, J.K. (2007). Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (in English). London: Bloomsbury Publishing, et al. p. 465. UK ISBN 0-7475-8108-8. MuggleNet (17 November 2004). "Mugglenet.com". Mugglenet.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011. "Transcript of Part 1 of PotterCast's JK Rowling Interview". The-Leaky-Cauldron.org. 23 December 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2016. Mentioned by Dumbledore to Harry in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. Half-Blood Prince (US Scholastic Hardback edition), p. 506 Half-Blood Prince (US Scholastic Hardback edition), p. 504 Rowling, J.K. "Professor Quirrell". Pottermore. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "Everyone you didn't realise was connected to Voldemort's Horcruxes | Wizarding World". www.wizardingworld.com. Retrieved 28 July 2021. Rowling, Half-Blood Prince (Arthur A. Levine Books edition), pp.500 "Diary of Tom Riddle". The Harry Potter Lexicon. Retrieved 1 March 2017. "In 'Chamber of Secrets', what would have happened if Ginny had died and Tom Riddle had escaped the diary". jkrowling.com. J.K.Rowling Official Site. Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 25 December 2014. "Marvolo Gaunt's Ring". Harry Potter Lexicon. Retrieved 28 July 2021. Rowling, Deathly Hallows (Arthur A. Levine Books edition), pp.680–683 "J.K. Rowling Web Chat Transcript". The Leaky Cauldron. 30 July 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2007. "Hufflepuff's cup". Harry Potter Lexicon. Retrieved 28 July 2021. Anderson, Lauren (5 April 2021). "'Harry Potter': The Impressive Amount of Time It Took to Find and Destroy Voldemort's Horcruxes". Showbiz Cheat Sheet. Retrieved 28 July 2021. Rowling, J.K. (21 July 2007). Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Children's ed.). Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-9105-4. Rowling, J.K. (2007). Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (in English). New York City: Scholastic, et al. pp. 686. "And while that fragment of soul, unmissed by Voldemort, remains attached to and protected by Harry, Lord Voldemort cannot die." PotterCast 130: The One with JK Rowling Transcript Part 2 (16:09 - 32:17) (Archived copy; original website no longer valid) web.archive.org copy of pottercast.the-leaky-cauldron.org, accessed 29 March 2020 Rowling, Joanne Kathleen (21 July 2007). Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing, plc. ISBN 978-0-545-01022-1. "Harry Potter: 10 Secrets About The Sword Of Gryffindor That Only True Fans Know". ScreenRant. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2021. "Relive the Best Harry Potter Movie Moments Ever". E! Online. 15 July 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021. "Sword of Gryffindor". Pottermore. October 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2013. (registration required) Eccleshare, Julia (2002). A guide to the Harry Potter novels. London: Continuum. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-84714-418-8. OCLC 229341237. "Harry Potter: Gryffindor Is the Only House a Student Can CHOOSE to Be Sorted". CBR.com. Retrieved 22 November 2020. "The Sorting Hat | Wizarding World". www.wizardingworld.com. Retrieved 31 October 2019. Rowling, J.K. "Hatstall". Pottermore. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "The Sorting Hat". Pottermore. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 28 December 2016. "The Fantastic Beasts 2 Trailer Hints At a Dumbledore Reveal". Time. Retrieved 27 August 2021. "Harry Potter: What Each Character Saw In The Mirror Of Erised (& Why)". ScreenRant. 7 July 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021. Rowling, J. K. (1999). "Flight of the Fat Lady". Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0747542155. "MuggleNet Emerson and Melissa's J.K. Rowling Interview Page 3". Mugglenet.com. 16 July 2005. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011. "On Screen Cars | Beaulieu, New Forest". Beaulieu.co.uk. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2017. Rowling, J.K. "Floo Powder". Pottermore. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "Dictionary.reference.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 25 November 2011. Rowling, J.K. "The Knight Bus". Pottermore. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "Countrybus.org". Countrybus.org. Retrieved 25 November 2011. [HP4], "The Portkey", p.69[clarification needed] [HP5], "The Advance Guard", p. 51[clarification needed] [HP4], "The Portkey", p.66[clarification needed] Rowling, J. K. (1999). "Hermione's Secret". Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0747542155. "The Quill of Acceptance and The Book of Admittance". Pottermore. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 28 December 2016. Boyle, Fiona (2004). A Muggle's Guide to the Wizarding World: Exploring The Harry Potter Universe. ECW Press. p. 363. ISBN 1-55022-655-X. Whited, Lana A. (2002). The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon. University of Missouri Press. p. 280. ISBN 0-8262-1549-1. "Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry". Pottermore. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 1 March 2017. vte Harry Potter by J. K. Rowling Wizarding World Books Main novels The Philosopher's StoneThe Chamber of SecretsThe Prisoner of AzkabanThe Goblet of FireThe Order of the PhoenixThe Half-Blood PrinceThe Deathly Hallows Spin-offs Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find ThemQuidditch Through the AgesThe Tales of Beedle the Bard Short stories PrequelHogwarts: An Incomplete and Unreliable GuideShort Stories from Hogwarts of Power, Politics and Pesky PoltergeistsShort Stories from Hogwarts of Heroism, Hardship and Dangerous Hobbies Feature films Harry Potter (cast · music) The Philosopher's Stone soundtrackThe Chamber of Secrets soundtrackThe Prisoner of Azkaban soundtrackThe Goblet of Fire soundtrackThe Order of the Phoenix soundtrackThe Half-Blood Prince soundtrackThe Deathly Hallows – Part 1 productionsoundtrackThe Deathly Hallows – Part 2 productionsoundtrack Fantastic Beasts (cast · characters) Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them soundtrackThe Crimes of Grindelwald soundtrackThe Secrets of Dumbledore Characters Harry PotterRon WeasleyHermione GrangerLord VoldemortAlbus DumbledoreSeverus SnapeGinny WeasleyDraco MalfoyNeville LongbottomLuna LovegoodMinerva McGonagallRubeus HagridFred and George WeasleySirius BlackRemus LupinBellatrix LestrangeCedric DiggoryDolores Umbridge Groups Hogwarts staffOrder of the PhoenixDumbledore's ArmyDeath Eaters Other Supporting charactersFamily tree Fictional universe Magic creaturesobjectsMinistry of MagicMugglePlaces HogwartsQuidditch Other works PottermoreThe Cursed Child20th Anniversary: Return to Hogwarts Inspired media Video games Lego Creator: Harry PotterThe Philosopher's StoneThe Chamber of SecretsLego Creator: Harry Potter and the Chamber of SecretsQuidditch World CupThe Prisoner of AzkabanThe Goblet of FireThe Order of the PhoenixThe Half-Blood PrinceLego Harry Potter: Years 1–4The Deathly Hallows – Part 1The Deathly Hallows – Part 2Lego Harry Potter: Years 5–7Book of SpellsBook of PotionsLego DimensionsFantastic Beasts: Cases From the Wizarding WorldHogwarts MysteryWizards UniteHogwarts Legacy Attractions The Wizarding World of Harry Potter OrlandoJapanHollywoodDragon ChallengeFlight of the HippogriffHagrid's Magical Creatures Motorbike AdventureThe Escape from GringottsThe Forbidden JourneyHogwarts ExpressMovie Magic Experience Exhibitions The ExhibitionA History of MagicWarner Bros. 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